Carol Ann Duffy

Cite this Page

Carol Ann Duffy

Nationality: England

Carol Ann Duffy is considered to be one of the most significant contemporary British writers.

She is recognized for her straightforward, unrelenting approach to gender issues.

Carol Ann Duffy, poet to ‘Hour’ never reveals the gender of either the narrator of the poem, nor their partner. Could this ambiguity mirror her own sexual orientation, or does she leave it this way so it is relatable to more people? She falls back on the comparisons between emotional and physical wealth throughout the poem. The suggestion being that you cannot be richer than when you are spending time with the person you love. Time is a key factor in this poem, perhaps unsurprisingly given the title.

The key message is that time is the enemy of love. This is a theme that has been covered by many poets, including Shakespeare himself. In the modern world, I think this idea of time with loved ones is even more prevalent than ever. How many hours do we spend looking at our mobile phones or tablets when we could be basking in the riches of time with the people we love? That is the point Duffy drives home with this poem.

Hour by Carol Ann Duffy

Summary of Hour

‘Hour’ by Carol Ann Duffy cherishes the beauty of love that surpasses time’s dominion easily.

‘Hour’ by Carol Ann Duffy compares “Love” to “time’s beggar”. Thereafter, Duffy says that if time drops a coin for love, it makes love rich. Here, the reference isn’t meant for wealth. Rather it refers to the ability of lovers to cherish every moment. An hour is enough for the lovers to make it sublime. They don’t need hours after hours because they kiss in seconds. The moment that they create together is as valuable as gold to them. According to the poet, when she is with her partner under the open sky, sitting side by side, and kissing, the ambience becomes more valuable than all the jewels and gold. It seems as if nothing materialistic can allure her and her partner. That’s the beauty of love that lives in moments not in years!


‘Hour’ by Carol Ann Duffy contains several themes like love, time, and materialism. The poet also talks about the theme of time vs love in the poem. The most important theme of the poem is love. Duffy talks about the power of love that goes beyond the clutches of time. Lovers can make the most of a moment. Even an hour is enough for them to capitalize on it. Moreover, the poet uses several materialistic images in the poem. These images are meant for illustrating her love for her partner but the imagery somehow welcomes the theme of materialism. The poet uses this theme to create a contrast in the poem. According to Duffy, love makes lovers mentally richer than those who have a great amount of wealth. In this way, the poet refers to the beauty of love that is more valuable than all the riches.

Form and Tone

Whilst Duffy often writes in free verse, ‘Hour’ is very structured. It takes the form of a Shakespearean sonnet. It has a rhyming scheme (a-b-a-b-c-d-c-d-e-f-e-f-g-g). Being as it is a sonnet it only contains one stanza, although sometimes sonnets are broken down into 3 or 4 stanzas. Sonnets are often associated with love (as was the case with many of Shakespeare’s sonnets) and this poem is no exception as it explores the relationship of love and how it pertains to time. Time being the enemy of love is not an uncommon theme in stories and poetry alike and perhaps that is why Duffy chose this very traditional poetic form for this poem. The poem has a sweet romantic tone with many allusions to nature a throwback to the Romantic era in many ways.

Line by Line Analysis

Line 1

Love’s time’s beggar, but even a single hour,

This first line suggests, right from the start, that time is the enemy of love. Implying that love is always trying to “steal time” it then continues with an enjambment line (this is a sentence that runs on to the next line.)

Line 2

This infers that any time spent on love is time well spent. Throughout ‘Hour’ you will see allusions to wealth. These words are used purposefully to emphasize the value of love.

Line 3

We find an hour together, spend it not on flowers

Here Duffy addresses the reader (her partner) directly. She talks of spending time with them. She uses the word “spend” quite deliberately, another reference to wealth.

Line 4

I think here, rather than describing a specific event, she is describing a typical moment with her partner in order to make a point about values. She is intimating that rolling around in a ditch is worth more than flowers and wine.

Line 5

For thousands of seconds we kiss; your hair

It is interesting that Duffy breaks down time into such a small denominator to make it sound more grandiose. Thousands of seconds somehow sound longer than hundreds of minutes. Another enjambment line is used here giving a soothing flow to the poem.

Line 6

The narrator’s partner’s hair is compared to treasure, yet again a simile using wealth. Duffy then uses the phrase “Midas light”. Midas was a king in Greek mythology who was renowned for the stories of how everything he touched turned to gold. This is not Duffy’s only nod to Greek mythology. She also wrote a poem called Medusa and is well-known for writing poems based on literature and mythology.

Line 7

turning your limbs to gold. Time slows, for here

The narrator is saying that the sunlight makes their lover’s limbs look “golden” they describe how time, which to remind you is the enemy of love, slows when they are with their partner.

Line 8

The narrator uses millionaires to once again explain the wealth in love. Backhanding the night is an interesting phrase here. One associates the night with darkness and negative emotions and the light with positives. Backhanding the night gives an image of defiantly slapping negativity, ostensibly through the power of love (and light).

Line 9

so nothing dark will end our shining hour,

The narrator doesn’t want anything to end their experience with their partner.

Line 10

cuckoo spit is not something that you would usually consider to be nice. For those of you unfamiliar with it, it’s basically a foamy substance used to protect certain insect larvae and it looks like somebody spat on some foliage! So to say that no jewel could hold a candle to it seems absurd. That is until we move to the next line.

Line 11

hung from the blade of grass at your ear,

Here we understand the previous line. The cuckoo spit is held so highly as it is close to the narrator’s loved one. Once again highlighting how time with them is the most valuable thing they could have.

Line 12

Once again the natural, unspoiled, version of the partner is heralded over the wealthy alternative. This time the light is used to make the point.

Line 13

than here. Now. Time hates love, wants love poor,

The word now is a sentence on its own and this is the only example of a short sentence in the entire poem. This is used to highlight its importance. It is quite jarring and its use of mid-line makes a reader stop. It gives it a profundity. All of these comparisons the narrator has been making are how they are feeling right now, at the moment. They do not concern themselves with dwelling on the past, or worrying about the future they are solely focused on the present, the now. What follows cements the entire point of the poem that time is the enemy of love: “Time hates love, wants love poor”.

Line 14

but love spins gold, gold, gold from straw.

Here the narrator is suggesting that love has transformative power. That it can take the mundane and make it worth more than precious materials, note the tricolon being used for emphasis. Spinning gold from straw is a reference to the fairytale character Rumpelstiltskin and is a further example of drawing a comparison between what a person would perceive to be wealth and what is actually valuable. Being the final line of the sonnet gives it credence as the final two lines of a stanza are supposed to offer a “turn” or a “resolution” the resolution here is partial though due to the proceeding line, but the hint is that love will conquer the obstacle that is time.

About Carol Ann Duffy

Carol Ann Duffy is a Scottish poet and laureate. She is the first female and openly gay person to hold this distinction in the four hundred years that it has existed. She tends to write poems in the form of monologues that address the reader directly, giving her poetry an intimate and engaging feel. She usually writes poems that are dark in nature and deals with people with complex characters that feel disenfranchised from society, outsiders if you will, however, this poem is an exception to that rule. Her poetry is very popular and frequently studied in British schools and colleges. ‘Hour’ is from her collection Rapture which chronicles the highs and lows of relationships.

Discover the Essential Secrets

of Poetry

Sign up to unveil the best kept secrets in poetry,

brought to you by the experts

Lee-James Bovey Poetry Expert
Lee-James, a.k.a. LJ, has been a Poem Analysis team member ever since Novemer 2015, providing critical analysis of poems from the past and present. Nowadays, he helps manage the team and the website.
Notify of

Oldest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

The Best-Kept Secrets of Poetry

Discover and learn about the greatest poetry ever straight to your inbox

Discover and learn about the greatest poetry, straight to your inbox

Start Your Perfect Poetry Journey

Share via
Copy link
Powered by Social Snap