Chinua Achebe

‘Answer’ by Chinua Achebe portrays a persona shedding off insecurities about his homeland. He stops comparing it to that of his colonizers, seeing it as the vibrant place it always was.

Chinua Achebe

Nationality: African

Chinua Achebe was a Nigerian novelist and poet.

His masterpiece is the novel Things Fall Apart.

Key Poem Information

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Central Message: The importance of getting away from oppression.

Themes: Dreams, Journey, New Life

Speaker: Unknown

Emotions Evoked: Optimism, Relief

Poetic Form: Free Verse

Time Period: 20th Century

Chinua Achebe's poem is a powerful exploration of personal liberation and the triumph over fear and oppression.

‘Answer’ by Chinua Achebe is a short poem about a person ridding himself of an inferiority complex. This free verse portrays a persona who fears yet admires the culture of his colonial masters. He eagerly follows their ways, abandoning his own culture until he realizes its value. The poem heavily employs enjambment and imagery to show the aftereffects of colonialism and westernization.

Answer by Chinua Achebe


‘Answer’ by Chinua Achebe is a poem about getting rid of one’s inferiority complex.

The poem begins right away with the persona’s breakthrough. He experiences immense relief from no longer fearing or admiring the colonial masters. The speaker then narrates his life before the breakthrough: how the colonizers’ ways fascinated and scared him, how he pleased them (to his discomfort), and how he hung on their approval because he believed they were superior. He also mentions the supposed benefit pleasing his masters brought him: a rise in rank. Though not stated, the term “white-collar”, Achebe’s nationality (Nigerian), and ‘Answer‘s diction tell us the people admired and feared are European colonizers, and the speaker himself is Nigerian—by extension, African.

In the end, the speaker realizes the beauty of his homeland, abandons the ways of European colonizers, and returns to cherishing his own.

You can read the poem here.


‘Answer’ is an isometric poem of 31 short lines written in free verse. It reads like prose, employs enjambment, and spots no rhyme or comma where there should be. The notable omission of necessary commas either depicts the stream of consciousness narrative technique or the urgency of the speaker’s thoughts. ‘Answer‘ concludes with a final full stop, having used the punctuation previously to transition into new thoughts.

Literary Devices

  • Imagery: This is the dominant device in ‘Answer.’ The poem uses visual imagery to paint a picture of Nigeria—and by extension, Africa—at the height of colonisation. The device is especially evident between lines 12 and 31, where the speaker narrates how he lived before and after his eye-opening discovery. By describing the beauty of his environment between lines 26 and 31, he shows appreciation for his homeland.
  • Enjambment: Enjambment is the second dominant device in ‘Answer.’ Throughout the poem, sentences are broken into multiple short lines.
  • Metaphor: Three forms of metaphor run throughout the poem: extended metaphor, implied metaphor and the, so to say, simple metaphor. The simple (or most direct) metaphor appears in “potsherds of broken trance” (line 25). On realising his people’s ways aren’t inferior after all, the persona compares his long felt admiration cum fear to potsherds, which are broken pieces. He uses this comparison to show the energy with which he gets rid of his insecurities. “Crouching shadows” (line 24) is an implicit metaphor for the speaker’s abandoned culture, and “roughness of a prickly/day” (line 19-20) portrays the discomfort that came with pleasing colonial masters. The entire poem is an extended metaphor for the events and effect of colonialism and westernisation.
  • Personification: “terror-fringed fascination” (line 2) performs the human acts of binding, seizing, shaking and throwing. “Source” in line 21 feeds and the speaker’s mentions his “proud vibrant life” (line 31) waiting for him.
  • Synecdoche: “crowding faces” (line 4) is a synecdoche for European colonizers.
  • Metonymy: “white-collar hands” (lines 7 and 8) represents European colonizers.
  • Simile: “like a cheap watch in…” (line 9) is the only simile in the poem. It uncovers the speaker’s feelings about his culture before his realisation. He thinks his people’s ways are inferior, cheap.


The major themes of ‘Answer‘ are:

  • Westernization
  • Colonialism

Other themes like that stem from the above major themes include:

  • Inferiority complex
  • Cultural dominance
  • White supremacy
  • Patriotism

Detailed Analysis

Lines 1-12

I broke at last

the terror-fringed fascination

that bound my ancient gaze


my ear and threw it down

beside me on the earth floor

and rose to my feet. I

Answer‘s opening lines describe the speaker’s dread and awe for a group of people. The metonymy “white-collar hands” and Achebe’s nationality tells readers it’s a group of European colonizers who ventured into Africa. The speaker’s fear stems from the knowledge that the whites have clearly come to rule his people. At the same time, however, their ways fascinate him. He notes the effect of these juxtaposed feelings: the abandonment of his homeland’s culture.

These lines uncover the beginning of westernization, when, like the speaker, some Nigerians—by extension, Africans—saw their values as “cheap”, inferior. Despite that, the persona starts ‘Answer‘ by telling readers he has killed both his fear and admiration for the colonial masters. On that note, one can say the poem begins on a cautiously positive note.

Lines 12-22

and rose to my feet. I

made of their shoulders

and heads bobbing up and down


day and quench the source

that fed turbulence to their

feet. I made a dramatic

These lines portray how colonizers determined the status of the persona’s people, using that “terror-fringed fascination” to their advantage. The speaker’s complex shows in his behavior here. He mentions how eager he was to have the Europeans approve of him so he could rise in rank.

It provides a glimpse into the continent of Africa at the height of colonization. Historical records detail the acts tribal chiefs committed to pleasing the whites. Between lines 18-20, the speaker points out these acts didn’t always favor his people. But leaders had to secure their status and perhaps, curry favor with their “superior” masters. In summary, these lines tell how the poet persona—by extension, Africa—became a slave to the colonizers, inferiority complex being one reason.

Lines 22-31

feet. I made a dramatic

descent that day landing

backways into crouching shadows


of sunlight become my home again

on whose trysting floor waited

my proud vibrant life.

Answer‘s final lines expand upon the speaker’s realization mentioned at the beginning. Using imagery, the persona speaks of the value and beauty of his homeland. He realizes that, in fact, it isn’t inferior to that of the colonial masters and abandons the supposed benefits pleasing them had provided him. The theme of patriotism shines through lines 26-31, as the poet persona returns to cherishing his home. It’s a message to Africa—specifically Nigeria—to always remember and cherish their culture, even in a westernized world.


When and where was ‘Answer‘ published?

Answer‘ was first published in 1971 as part of the poetry collection, Collected Poems by Chinua Achebe. The second and third revisions of the collection were published in 1973 and 2004 respectively.

What is the tone and mood of the poem ‘Answer‘?

Relief laces the speaker’s tone. He’s finally rid himself of an inferiority complex, so he now feels at ease with his culture.

Towards the end, the persona also exudes patriotism in the way he describes his homeland.

What inspired ‘Answer?’

The subject matter of the poem doesn’t come as a surprise. From Things Fall Apart (1958) to There Was A Country (2012), Achebe was famous for portraying his people’s way of life in both pre-colonial and post-colonial times. ‘Answer‘ is only one of his many attempts to show the world the reality of Nigeria, and by extension, Africa.

Is ‘Answer’ a premonition?

Achebe definitely saw the future called westernization when he wrote ‘Answer.’ Since he didn’t call that future a good thing, one can say ‘Answer‘ is a premonition. However, the poem starts and ends on an optimistic note. The message between lines 26-31 is Achebe’s hope for a future where fellow Africans don’t feel inferior to Europeans. In this light, ‘Answer‘ is not a premonition.

Why is the poem titled ‘Answer?’

Achebe wrote the poem as an answer to what, in the present African society, has become a long-standing debate: the effects and remedies (if needed) of westernization. Hence its title.

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If you enjoyed reading ‘Answer‘ by Chinua Achebe, you might find these other poems interesting:

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Chinua Achebe (poems)

Chinua Achebe

Chinua Achebe's poem showcases his profound understanding of human experiences, particularly within the African context. His poetry, like this piece alludes to, often addresses themes of identity, culture, and the impact of colonialism. Achebe's poetic style is characterized by his allusions and incredibly powerful language.
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20th Century

As a poet of the 20th century, Achebe's poem reflects the many poetic movements and styles that came into being during this era. His poem captures the complexities of modern life, the struggles of post-colonial societies, and the quest for identity and self-expression. This particular piece, though, is not incredibly well-known among 20th century poems.
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This is an influential African poem that, in some ways, also explores African cultural themes. Its engagement with social and political issues relevant to the African context, and its use of imagery and language rooted in African traditions are all important. The poem reflects the diverse and vibrant landscape of African poetry, capturing the complexities and richness of African experiences. It should be regarded as a highly important African poem.
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Dreams play a role in the poem, symbolizing aspirations, hopes, and desires. The speaker's decisive action to break free from fear and oppression is driven by their dreams of a better life. Achebe's poem acknowledges the power of dreams in motivating individuals to change their lives.
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The concept of a journey is central to the poem, as the speaker embarks on a path towards freedom. The journey represents a metaphorical passage from a state of oppression to liberation. Achebe's poem captures the challenges, uncertainties, and revelations that can occur along the journey of life.
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New Life

The theme of new life resonates in Achebe's poem, symbolizing a fresh start or rebirth. The speaker experiences a transformative journey, breaking free from fear and embracing a newfound sense of agency and purpose. Achebe explores the possibilities that new beginnings can bring and highlights the potential for growth and positive change in one's life.
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The poem conveys a sense of optimism, as the speaker breaks free from fear and embraces a newfound sense of freedom and self-empowerment. Achebe's poem suggests that despite the challenges and hardships faced, there is a hopeful outlook that change is possible.
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The poem reflects a sense of relief experienced by the speaker upon breaking free from fear and oppression. The act of shaking off the fear-induced trance and embracing a new sense of agency brings a profound sense of relief and liberation.
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African Culture

This poem subtly touches upon African cultural elements, reflecting the influence of African culture on the speaker's journey towards liberation. It highlights the resilience and strength rooted in African cultural heritage, offering glimpses of the speaker's connection to their cultural identity amidst the struggle for freedom. This is something that's common to Ache's work.
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Change is a prominent theme in the poem, as the speaker undergoes a transformative journey from a state of fear and oppression to one of freedom and self-empowerment. Achebe's poem emphasizes the inevitability and potential of change, both on an individual and societal level, as a catalyst for growth, liberation, and progress.
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This Achebe poem exposes the damaging effects of oppression on individuals and communities, shedding light on the struggles and challenges faced in the quest for liberation. It suggests that all individuals deserve the right to pursue their own lives and identities.
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The poem celebrates the concept of freedom, as the speaker breaks free from the chains of fear and oppression. Achebe's poem highlights the universal longing for freedom and the enduring human spirit that yearns to be unshackled, exploring the significance of freedom as a fundamental aspect of human existence.
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Free Verse

Achebe's poem is written in free verse, meaning that it is lacking a regular rhyme scheme or meter. The use of free verse allows for a natural flow of language, enabling Achebe to express the emotions and imagery he wanted to more easily. This form of poetry provides flexibility, enhancing the impact of the speaker's voice.
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Anastasia Ifinedo Poetry Expert
Anastasia Ifinedo is an officially published poet. You can find her poems in the anthologies, "Mrs Latimer Had A Fat Cat" by Cozy Cat Press and "The Little is Much" by Earnest Writes Community, among others. A former poet for the Invincible Quill Magazine and a reviewer of poems on several writing platforms, she has helped—and continues to help—many poets like her hone their craft.

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