Foucault famously defined discourse as ”Systems of thoughts composed of ideas, attitudes, and courses of action, beliefs, and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds of which they speak.” This all-encompassing definition helps readers understand discourse on the broadest level. But, when it comes to literature, it’s slightly different. It refers to speech or writing that deals with subjects formally. Sentences are longer and more complex. Readers won’t find colloquialisms are slang words in formal discourse.
Definition of Discourse
The word “discourse” comes from the Latin meaning “a running about.” Scholars related this to the movements of language and its natural flow. In literature, discourse is the formal arrangement of words. It refers broadly to all language and all forms of communication, written or spoken. This means small acts of communication and large, more complicated ones. There are several different types of discourse, all of which writers depend on to convey information. Explore them below.
Types of Discourse
The four most common and commonly cited types of discourse are:
- Narration: the voice that presents the story to readers or listeners. It is the commentary that engages the reader and inspires them to keep reading. The more interesting it is, the more likely the reader will be compelled to continue reading.
- Exposition: used to inform the audiences about background information. These are facts that aren’t up for interpretation or seek to change the audience’s mind. This kind of discourse is unbiased and uses a neutral tone. For example, telling readers what time it is when a particular chapter of a book starts or what the weather is like.
- Description: uses images and encourages the reader to imagine experiences as if they were living them. This type of discourse is incredibly important in creative writing if the author wants to set the scene and convince the reader of it.
- Argument: used to try to convince another person about an idea. It uses logic and reasoning. The writer makes claims, backs them up, and ideally sways the reader or listener to a specific way of thinking. This kind of discourse is seen in political speeches, academic papers, and other sources.
There are also several other types of discourse that are also interesting to consider:
- Expressive: reflects what the writer is feeling o thinking. It generates ideas and is usually not concerned with facts.
- Transactional: is used when the writer wants to take a less-literary and more instructional or didactic approach to writing. The writer usually uses the active voice. It appears in advertisements and business meetings.
- Poetic: uses rhythmic language and rhyming words to appeal to the reader’s emotions and convey experiences. Often uses imagery, figurative language, and other techniques familiar to poetry.
Examples of Discourse in Literature
In this well-loved Byron poem, readers can find a great example of poetic discourse. It was written after Byron met his cousin, Mrs. John Wilmont. Her beauty so moved him that he immediately went home and wrote this poem about her. The poem uses iambic tetrameter throughout much of it as Byron describes the woman’s awe-inspiring beauty.
She walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that’s best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes;
Thus mellowed to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.
Here are the first few lines in which the rhyme scheme is quite clear. Byron uses rhyming words at the end of lines and devices like alliteration and similes to create memorable imagery. Words like “gaudy day denies” and “Thus mellowed to that tender light” are great examples of poetic discourse.
Explore Lord Byron’s poetry.
The Diary of Virginia Woolf
In this example, readers can find expressive discourse. The author Virginia Woolf kept a diary, recording her personal recollections and emotions in its pages. These are examples of her own ideas, presented for their own reasons. She is not attempting to sway anyone to her point of view or make a reader feel something specific. Here is a quote from her diary:
I enjoy almost everything. Yet I have some restless searcher in me. Why is there not a discovery in life? Something one can lay hands on and say “This is it”? My depression is a harassed feeling. I’m looking: but that’s not it — that’s not it. What is it? And shall I die before I find it?
In these lines, she considers her emotions, tries to analyze them, and alludes to a deeper depression she can’t shake off. Within expressive discourse, readers can find a writer’s clear and unaltered thoughts.
“I Have a Dream” Speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.
This incredibly famous speech is an example of narrative and argumentative discourse. King expresses his thoughts and those at the heart of the Civil Rights movement. He creates calls to action, hoping to inspire those listening to join him, as well as persuade those who disagree with him to change their minds. Here are a few lines:
In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
King’s words are clear, mostly formal, and to the point. He has a specific message he’s trying to spread, and he does not spend time adding in flowery language to obscure it.
Do Writers Use Discourse?
Discourse is used whenever and however a writer addresses a topic. It takes many different forms, as described above, and is crucial for conveying one’s experience. This might be through writing or through speech. Without communication, there would be no genres of literature nor any way for stories to be shared.
Related Literary Terms
- Literary Argument: the argument of a piece of literature is a statement towards the beginning of a work that declares what it’s going to be about.
- Pathos: an appeal made by the writer to the audience’s emotions in order to make them feel something.
- Imagery: refers to the elements of a poem that engage a reader’s senses. These are the important sights, sounds, feelings, and smells.
- Logos: the use of logic to create a persuasive argument in writing.