From cocoon forth a butterfly

Emily Dickinson

‘From cocoon forth a butterfly,’ also known as ‘The Butterfly’s Day,’ is a beautiful poem written by the American poet Emily Dickinson. This poem presents the themes of the vanity of life and oblivion.


Emily Dickinson

Nationality: American

Emily Dickinson redefined American poetry with unique line breaks and unexpected rhymes.

Notable works include 'Because I could not stop for Death' and 'Hope is the Thing with Feathers.' 

Key Poem Information

Central Message: All creatures, no matter their beauty or importance, are faced with mortality.

Themes: Aging, Death, Identity

Speaker: Unknown

Emotions Evoked: Contentment, Satisfaction

Poetic Form: Block Form

Time Period: 19th Century

The "butterfly's day" is temporary, Dickinsons asserts in this poem. She reminds us that all living things meet the same end, no matter how beautiful they are.

Dickinson has innovative expressions to talk about nature and her creatures. Her ideas are not only simple but pleasant to introspect. However, in this poem, From cocoon forth a butterfly,’ also known as ‘The Butterfly’s Day,’ Dickinson concerns a butterfly and its movements in nature. After reading the poem, it will be clear to the readers that the butterfly described in the poem is a symbol of the fashionable class and the idlers as well.

The poet creates an interesting contrast in this poem by referring to the hardworking farmers and bees. Last but not least, this poem details the nature of life.

From cocoon forth a butterfly (The Butterfly's Day)
Emily Dickinson

From Cocoon forth a ButterflyAs Lady from her DoorEmerged — a Summer Afternoon —Repairing Everywhere —

Without Design — that I could traceExcept to stray abroadOn Miscellaneous EnterpriseThe Clovers — understood —

Her pretty Parasol be seenContracting in a FieldWhere Men made Hay —Then struggling hardWith an opposing Cloud —

Where Parties — Phantom as Herself —To Nowhere — seemed to goIn purposeless Circumference —As 'twere a Tropic Show —

And notwithstanding Bee — that worked —And Flower — that zealous blew —This Audience of IdlenessDisdained them, from the Sky —

Till Sundown crept — a steady Tide —And Men that made the Hay —And Afternoon — and Butterfly —Extinguished — in the Sea —

From cocoon forth a butterfly by Emily Dickinson


‘From cocoon forth a butterfly’ by Emily Dickinson concerns the nature of life and puts forward the theme of vanity of human life.

This poem begins with a reference to a butterfly that came out on a summer afternoon from its cocoon. Thereafter, it headed for the clovers without any design, and the poet goes on recording its playful yet gracious movements. The speaker of this poem, thereafter, found the butterfly in a field where men made hay. There it joined with other butterflies forming a “purposeless circumference” as if it was some “tropic show.” It seemed to the speaker as if the flock of butterflies mocked at the toil of the bee, flower, and those hard-working men. But, at the end of the day, they are all going to be extinguished in the sea of oblivion.


This poem of Dickinson’s consists of six stanzas. Each stanza of this poem contains four lines. However, there is not any specific rhyme scheme in this poem. The poet maintains the flow of this piece by the use of internal rhymings. But, in some instances, the poet also uses slant rhymes for creating a rhythm. Apart from that, the metrical pattern of the poem is regular. Dickinson writes this poem in iambic tetrameter and trimeter alternatively. However, there are a few metrical variations in this work.

Literary Devices

Dickinson’s ‘From cocoon forth a butterfly’ contains several literary devices. The poem begins with a simile. Here, the poet compares the butterfly to a lady. Moreover, she also compares the cocoon to a room by using a metaphor. Readers can also find the use of personification in this poem. Here, the poet personifies the butterfly and the clovers. In the third stanza, “pretty parasol” contains alliteration of the “p” sound. There is an ironic reference to the group of butterflies as “an opposing cloud.” Apart from that, the poet uses anaphora in the first two lines of the fifth stanza. The poet concludes her work with an epigram.

Detailed Analysis

Lines 1–8

From cocoon forth a butterfly

As lady from her door

Emerged — a summer afternoon —

Repairing everywhere,

Without design, that I could trace,

Except to stray abroad

On miscellaneous enterprise

The clovers understood.

Dickinson’s ‘From cocoon forth a butterfly’ is full of vibrant imagery and striking symbolism. Likewise, the poem begins with an image of a butterfly coming out of its cocoon. It is a symbol of life. Thereafter the poet uses a metaphor of a lady opening her door to the butterfly’s act of coming out of its cocoon. However, it was a summer afternoon when the lyrical speaker observed the scene. The butterfly’s activity seemed to her as if the creature was a repairer of nature. Hence the poet remarks, “Repairing everywhere,/ Without designs …”

The first two stanzas are connected by enjambment. Whatsoever, the speaker tried to trace the butterfly’s movements. However, she could not keep up with its pace. For this reason, she strayed abroad. Thereafter, in the last two lines of this section, the poet remarks only the clovers understood the activities of the butterfly. As butterflies eventuate pollination in flowers, the poet makes this remark.

Lines 9–16

Her pretty parasol was seen

Contracting in a field

Where men made hay, then struggling hard

With an opposing cloud,

Where parties, phantom as herself,

To Nowhere seemed to go

In purposeless circumference,

As ‘t were a tropic show.

The third stanza of ‘From cocoon forth a butterfly’ captures the image of the butterfly in a field. The speaker saw her “pretty parasol” contracting while it sat on a flower. Here, “pretty parasol” is a metaphor for its delicate wings. Moreover, the last two lines of this stanza create a contrast between the men who made hay and the “opposing cloud” of butterflies. Those men working in the field symbolize hard work, whereas the butterflies playfully flying in the air symbolize leisure and idleness.

In the fourth stanza, the poet compares the butterfly to a “phantom”. She visualizes the flock of butterflies flying in the air like an apparition. The speaker says that parties of butterflies seemed to go nowhere. Here, the poet uses an inversion or hyperbaton. In the following line, the poet presents another metaphor. Here, she points at the butterflies as a “purposeless circumference.” The reference illustrates their circular flying pattern. In the last line of this stanza, she ironically says, “As’t were a tropic show.”

Lines 17–24

And notwithstanding bee that worked,

And flower that zealous blew,

This audience of idleness

Disdained them, from the sky,

Till sundown crept, a steady tide,

And men that made the hay,

And afternoon, and butterfly,

Extinguished in its sea.

Dickinson presents another image of a bee that worked notwithstanding the idleness of the butterfly. The flower grew zealous by seeing them too. But, that “audience of idleness” did not care about the hard-working creatures at all. They disdained those who were below them, not in dignity, but in the frame of reference.

In the last stanza, the poet presents the theme of the futility of life. Here, she depicts how the plot changed after the sunset. She metaphorically compares the sky to a sea and compares darkness to the “steady tide”. This “steady tide” thus becomes a symbol of oblivion. However, the poet remarks that to death they are all the same. Men that made hay, the bees, and the butterfly were going to be “extinguished” in the sea of oblivion someday. On this note of “memento mori”, Dickinson ends this poem.

Historical Context

Dickinson’s ‘From cocoon forth a butterfly’ was published in 1896. It appears in her book of poetry, “The Poems of Emily Dickinson: Series Two.” Dickinson, one of the best 19th-century American poets, talks about the vanity of human life as a whole in this poem. Moreover, her liking for romantic themes such as “memento mori” also gets featured in this work. Lastly, the intricately detailed images present in this piece reflect Dickinson’s closeness to nature and her sense of romanticism.

Similar Poetry

Here is a list of a few poems that similarly talk about the themes present in Dickinson’s From cocoon forth a butterfly.’

You can also read about 10 of the Best Emily Dickinson Poems and 12 Poems About Butterflies.

Sudip Das Gupta Poetry Expert
A complete expert on poetry, Sudip graduated with a first-class B.A. Honors Degree in English Literature. He has a passion for analyzing poetic works with a particular emphasis on literary devices and scansion.

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