Frances Cornford

‘Childhood’ explores the transitory moment when a child becomes aware of the passing of time, and the process of growing old.


Frances Cornford

Nationality: English

Frances Cornford was an English poet.

She was the granddaughter of Charles Darwin.

Key Poem Information

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Central Message: The poem's central message is that we all grow old and that, once we realise that, we cannot forget it.

Themes: Aging

Speaker: The speaker is an older version of the child alluded to in the title, reflecting on their youth.

Emotions Evoked: Regret

Poetic Form: Blank Verse

Time Period: 20th Century

'Childhood' captures the universal experience of lost innocence, when one becomes aware of their own mortality and that of others.

Frances Cornford’s ‘Childhood‘ presents the moment in which a child’s innocence is threatened by the realisation that age is both inevitable and present before their eyes. Cornford thereby uses the poem to explore ideas around innocence and its eventual decline.

Childhood by Frances Cornford


Childhood‘ is a moving encounter between a child and an elderly figure, in which the universality of age and mortality become apparent to the child.

The poem begins from a point of scepticism on behalf of the narrator who is a small child. They do not believe the cosmetic reminders of age on people they encounter to be anything more than deliberate choices, like the clothes they wear. It is only after they witness an elderly person in distress that they begin to realise that age is something genuinely debilitating and they can no longer return to their earlier ignorance of it.

You can read the full poem here.


Frances Cornford was born in 1886 in Cambridge to a wealthy and successful family. Her grandfather was the renowned naturalist Charles Darwin and her father had a knighthood. She published several books of verse before her death in 1960 and influenced poets including Philip Larkin. She went on to have five children of her own, including the poet John Cornford who died fighting in the Spanish Civil War.

Detailed Analysis

Lines 1-4

I used to think that grown-up people chose
To have stiff backs and wrinkles round their nose,
And veins like small fat snakes on either hand,
On purpose to be grand.

The poem begins by asserting the narrator’s former innocence by listing childlike beliefs they no longer hold. The decision to focus on the “stiff backs” and “wrinkles” evoke the curiosity of a child but also showcase their inability to explain the reasons behind the things they see. The use of the simile in the third line foreshadows the child’s eventual realisation as snakes have sinister connotations, particularly in the biblical story of Adam and Eve which is also concerned with lost innocence. Finally, the sense of purpose the narrator believes the older people possess serves to emphasise the ignorance that children have of mortality and age which, once lost, can never be recovered.

Lines 5-10

Till through the banisters I watched one day
As I was helplessly young.

The fact the narrator sees the woman experiencing difficulties through the banister is significant as it could symbolise the permeable barrier between youth and experience, as well as an unsuccessful attempt to shield the realities of aging from children. Finally, because banisters are ordinarily attached to stairs, it could be a metaphor for growing older, just as one climbs the stairs.

The woman struggles with her necklace that has come “unstrung” which metaphorically represents the process of unraveling one associates with old age. Curiously, onyx beads have connotations of stamina and determination which means the line can be viewed as dramatic irony, given these qualities can abandon us when we grow older. Finally, the poet conflates the states of being old and young, as shown through the repetition of the word “helplessly” to describe both the child and the elderly figure. Thus, the poet reminds the reader of the inevitability of growing older and also the similarities it has with being young, given they must both rely on others.


What is the structure of ‘Childhood‘?

The poem is written in a single stanza, which uses an iambic meter and an AABB rhyme scheme which falters in the poem’s second half. This faltering rhyme scheme could represent the child’s loss of innocence as they are exposed to the realities of age.

What are onyx beads?

Onyx beads are black gemstones which are commonly associated with stamina and perseverance. When worn on a necklace, the beads are said to impart these qualities onto the wearer.

Who is the speaker in ‘Childhood‘?

The speaker is the child in the poem, though it appears the speaker is looking back on the memory through adult eyes. The speaker is therefore able to reflect on the significance of the memory with the benefit of hindsight, and understand its significance better than they might have done at the time.

What is the theme of ‘Childhood‘?

The main theme of the poem is innocence and how, once it is lost, it cannot be regained. The poem is also concerned with growing old and how the experience of being elderly can be similar to being a child, as one is probably reliant on others for help.

Similar Poetry

Readers who enjoyed ‘Childhood‘ might want to explore similar poetry. For example:

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Frances Cornford (poems)

Frances Cornford

'Childhood' is fairly representative of Cornford's poetic interests, especially age and innocence.
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20th Century

Whilst her formative years took place in the previous century, Cornford's writing career took place exclusively in the twentieth century.
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Cornford was as established in British high society as any writer in her period.
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The poem's central issue is that of age, and the realisation of its inevitability.
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Whilst the speaker does not regret having aged, they long for the innocence of youth.
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The poem is concerned with innocence and its irretrievable loss.
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As indicated by the title, Cornford's poem is focused on youth and its fragility.
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Blank Verse

Whilst the poem does feature some rhyme, it is the presence of the iambic meter which ensures it resembles Blank Verse.
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Even though the poem only depicts a brief moment, it was clearly a formative one in the narrator's development away from youthful innocence.
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Joe Santamaria Poetry Expert
Joe has a degree in English and Related Literature from the University of York and a Masters in Irish Literature from Trinity College Dublin. He is an English tutor and counts W.B Yeats, Emily Brontë and Federico Garcia Lorca among his favourite poets.

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