The Song of Hiawatha: Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

‘The Song of Hiawatha: Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis’ by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is the fourth part of ‘The Song of Hiawatha.’ The poem details exciting moments in Hiawatha’s physical and spiritual journey. 


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Nationality: American

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is a famed poet and educator.

His poetry collections include Voices of the Night and Ballads and Other Poems.

Key Poem Information

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Central Message: The idea of heroism, growth, and connection to nature

Speaker: Unknown

Emotions Evoked: Anger, Bravery

Poetic Form: Narrative

Time Period: 19th Century

This poem is a remarkable narrative piece that weaves together important elements of the epic poem.

This a very long section of ‘The Song of Hiawatha,’ stretching to 353 lines. It details Hiawtha’s first steps on his journey. He encounters his father, who controls the winds and meets Minnehaha, a critical figure in his future journey. 


‘The Song of Hiawatha: Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis’ by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is an excerpt from the longer epic poem. This part of the poem describes Hiawatha meeting his father and meeting Minnehaha. 

This section of the poem begins with a fierce battle between Hiawatha and his father, Mudjekeewis, who is the West Wind. The two engage in relentless hand-to-hand combat, with nature reflecting the violence of their confrontation.

They fight over mountains and valleys, using natural elements like bulrush and rock fragments as weapons. The remnants of their battle remain scattered across the land, serving as constant reminders of the epic fight. Hiawatha returns home, and his anger subsides.

On his way home, he stops in the land of the Dacotahs to purchase arrowheads but is captivated by the dark-eyed daughter of the Arrow-maker, Minnehaha, or Laughing Water. Though he is drawn to her, he does not mention this meeting when he arrives home, only recounting the tale of his battle with Mudjekeewis.

Structure and Form 

‘The Song of Hiawatha: Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis’ is the fourth installment in Longfellow’s epic poem, ‘The Song of Hiawatha.’ Also known as a canto, this fourth section is 353 lines long. 

As throughout the rest of the poem, this canto is written in trochaic tetrameter. This means that each line contains four sets of two beats, the first of which is stressed and the second of which is unstressed. It sounds like “DUM-dum DUM-dum.” 

The poem is thought to have been inspired by a Finnish epic in the same form, titled ‘Kalevala.’ 

Literary Devices

In this poem, the poet makes use of a few different literary devices. For example:  

  • Metaphor: The poem uses metaphor, or comparisons between two things that don’t use “like” or “as,” to symbolize ideas and emotions, such as comparing Hiawatha’s heart to a “living coal” to represent his burning anger.
  • Personification: Occurs when the poet imbues something non-human with human attributes. For example, the wind and the sun give them characteristics of living beings.
  • Repetition: Longfellow frequently uses repetition, repeating words or phrases to create rhythm and emphasize key ideas, as in the repeated use of names and tribal words.

Detailed Analysis

Lines 1-37

Out of childhood into manhood

Now had grown my Hiawatha,

Skilled in all the craft of hunters,

Learned in all the lore of old men,

In all youthful sports and pastimes,

In all manly arts and labors.

  Swift of foot was Hiawatha;

He could shoot an arrow from him,

And run forward with such fleetness,

That the arrow fell behind him!

Strong of arm was Hiawatha;

He could shoot ten arrows upward,

Shoot them with such strength and swiftness,

That the tenth had left the bow-string

Ere the first to earth had fallen!

  He had mittens, Minjekahwun,

Magic mittens made of deer-skin;

When upon his hands he wore them,

He could smite the rocks asunder,

He could grind them into powder.

He had moccasins enchanted,

Magic moccasins of deer-skin;

When he bound them round his ankles,

When upon his feet he tied them,

At each stride a mile he measured!

  Much he questioned old Nokomis

Of his father Mudjekeewis;

Learned from her the fatal secret

Of the beauty of his mother,

Of the falsehood of his father;

And his heart was hot within him,

Like a living coal his heart was.

  Then he said to old Nokomis,

“I will go to Mudjekeewis,

See how fares it with my father,

At the doorways of the West-Wind,

At the portals of the Sunset!”

In the first lines of this section of ‘The Song of Hiawatha,’ the speaker provides a fascinating glimpse into Hiawatha’s growth and attributes, his magical accessories, and his determination to confront his father. 

The opening lines depict Hiawatha’s growth from childhood into manhood. He is described as skilled in hunting, knowledgeable in the wisdom of the elders, and proficient in sports, arts, and labor, as one would expect. 

He has an impressive amount of physical strength and skill. He’s able to, the poet says, run faster than his own arrow and shoot ten arrows in rapid succession.

He also has what’s described as magical mittens and moccasins made from deer skin that grant him supernatural abilities. With these, he’s able to break rocks and cover incredible distances with each step.

The poet also writes about Hiawatha’s relationship with his grandmother, Nokomis. He turns to her for knowledge and wisdom, learning about his mother’s beauty and his father’s falsehood.

The passage concludes with Hiawatha’s resolve to meet his father, Mudjekeewis. He’s going on a journey to do so, one that turns out to be physical and spiritual. 

Lines 38-86

  From his lodge went Hiawatha,

Dressed for travel, armed for hunting;

Dressed in deer-skin shirt and leggings,

Richly wrought with quills and wampum;

On his head his eagle-feathers,

Round his waist his belt of wampum,

In his hand his bow of ash-wood,

Strung with sinews of the reindeer;

In his quiver oaken arrows,

Tipped with jasper, winged with feathers;

With his mittens, Minjekahwun,

With his moccasins enchanted.

  Warning said the old Nokomis,

“Go not forth, O Hiawatha!

To the kingdom of the West-Wind,

To the realms of Mudjekeewis,

Lest he harm you with his magic,

Lest he kill you with his cunning!”

  But the fearless Hiawatha

Heeded not her woman’s warning;

Forth he strode into the forest,

At each stride a mile he measured;

Lurid seemed the sky above him,

Lurid seemed the earth beneath him,

Hot and close the air around him,

Filled with smoke and fiery vapors,

As of burning woods and prairies,

For his heart was hot within him,

Like a living coal his heart was.

  So he journeyed westward, westward,

Left the fleetest deer behind him,

Left the antelope and bison;

Crossed the rushing Esconaba,

Crossed the mighty Mississippi,

Passed the Mountains of the Prairie,

Passed the land of Crows and Foxes,

Passed the dwellings of the Blackfeet,

Came unto the Rocky Mountains,

To the kingdom of the West-Wind,

Where upon the gusty summits

Sat the ancient Mudjekeewis,

Ruler of the winds of heaven.

In these lines, Hiawatha prepares himself for traveling. He dresses in his deer skin. The attire is rich in symbolism and native materials, from eagle feathers to wampum belts and jasper-tipped arrows. 

As Hiawatha prepares to leave, his grandmother Nokomis warns him not to go to the kingdom of the West-Wind, Mudjekeewis’s realm. She has a great deal of fear for what’s going to happen to Hiawatha. Despite the warning, Hiawatha proceeds fearlessly, demonstrating his courage. 

The poet describes his power in the way he strides into the forest. It further accentuates his supernatural abilities. The description of the lurid sky, earth, hot air, and fiery vapors creates an ominous atmosphere that mirrors Hiawatha’s intense emotions. The repetition of the metaphor of his heart being like living coal adds consistency and further emphasizes his passion and drive.

He leaves behind deer, antelope, and bison, crosses rivers and mountains, and passes through lands of different tribes. What he sees and his pursuit of the truth connects him to different aspects of the natural world and various Native American cultures.

The passage culminates in Hiawatha’s arrival at the kingdom of the West Wind, where his father, Mudjekeewis, rules over the winds of heaven.

Lines 87-134

  Filled with awe was Hiawatha

At the aspect of his father.

On the air about him wildly

Tossed and streamed his cloudy tresses,

Gleamed like drifting snow his tresses,

Glared like Ishkoodah, the comet,

Like the star with fiery tresses.

  Filled with joy was Mudjekeewis

When he looked on Hiawatha,

Saw his youth rise up before him

In the face of Hiawatha,

Saw the beauty of Wenonah

From the grave rise up before him.

  “Welcome!” said he, “Hiawatha,

To the kingdom of the West-Wind!

Long have I been waiting for you!

Youth is lovely, age is lonely,

Youth is fiery, age is frosty;

You bring back the days departed,

You bring back my youth of passion,

And the beautiful Wenonah!”

  Many days they talked together,

Questioned, listened, waited, answered;

Much the mighty Mudjekeewis

Boasted of his ancient prowess,

Of his perilous adventures,

His indomitable courage,

His invulnerable body.

  Patiently sat Hiawatha,

Listening to his father’s boasting;

With a smile he sat and listened,

Uttered neither threat nor menace,

Neither word nor look betrayed him,

But his heart was hot within him,

Like a living coal his heart was.

  Then he said, “O Mudjekeewis,

Is there nothing that can harm you?

Nothing that you are afraid of?”

And the mighty Mudjekeewis,

Grand and gracious in his boasting,

Answered, saying, “There is nothing,

Nothing but the black rock yonder,

Nothing but the fatal Wawbeek!”

In the next section of lines, the poet describes Haiwatha coming face-to-face with his father, Mudjekeewis, resulting in a meeting that is emotionally charged and significant in the development of the narrative.

The passage depicts Hiawatha as his father. He’s compared to drifting snow and a fiery comet. The similes heighten the mystical and majestic aspect of Mudjekeewis, emphasizing his powerful presence.

Mudjekeewis welcomes Hiawatha into his kingdom, something that conveys warmth and belonging. His words, though, draw a poignant contrast between youth and age, describing youth as lovely and fiery and age as lonely and frosty.

The text in these lines conveys the many days of conversation they engaged. Mudjekeewis boasts about his ancient prowess, adventures, courage, and invulnerability. Hiawatha demonstrates patience in these lines, sitting and listening with a smile. The repetition of the metaphor of his heart being like a living coal continues to emphasize his inner intensity.

It turns out, though, that he does have one weakness: “fatal Wawbeek.”

Lines 135-171

  And he looked at Hiawatha

With a wise look and benignant,

With a countenance paternal,

Looked with pride upon the beauty

Of his tall and graceful figure,

Saying, “O my Hiawatha!

Is there anything can harm you?

Anything you are afraid of?”

  But the wary Hiawatha

Paused awhile, as if uncertain,

Held his peace, as if resolving,

And then answered, “There is nothing,

Nothing but the bulrush yonder,

Nothing but the great Apukwa!”

  And as Mudjekeewis, rising,

Stretched his hand to pluck the bulrush,

Hiawatha cried in terror,

Cried in well-dissembled terror,

“Kago! kago! do not touch it!”

“Ah, kaween!” said Mudjekeewis,

“No indeed, I will not touch it!”

  Then they talked of other matters;

First of Hiawatha’s brothers,

First of Wabun, of the East-Wind,

Of the South-Wind, Shawondasee,

Of the North, Kabibonokka;

Then of Hiawatha’s mother,

Of the beautiful Wenonah,

Of her birth upon the meadow,

Of her death, as old Nokomis

Had remembered and related.

  And he cried, “O Mudjekeewis,

It was you who killed Wenonah,

Took her young life and her beauty,

Broke the Lily of the Prairie,

Trampled it beneath your footsteps;

You confess it! you confess it!”

In the next lines, the poet writes of further revelations between the two. Mudjekeewis now turns the question back to his son. Hiawatha’s answer, in which he mentions the bulrush and “the great Apukwa,” is intriguing. These are the only things, he asserts, that can harm him. It’s a moment of clever strategizing where he seems to be laying a trap.

 As Mudjekeewis reaches out to pluck the bulrush, Hiawatha’s cry of “terror” adds an intense moment of tension to the scene. It’s described as “well-dissembled,” indicating that this is a feigned reaction, part of Hiawatha’s apparent plan. 

Mudjekeewis’s reaction, in turn, is both humorous and insightful. He shows both wisdom and caution here. The text then shifts to lighter matters as they discuss Hiawatha’s brothers, representing the winds, and his mother, Wenonah.

The passage concludes with a sudden and dramatic change in tone as Hiawatha accuses Mudjekeewis of killing Wenonah. The metaphor of the “Lily of the Prairie” helps to symbolize Wenonah’s innocence and beauty.

Lines 172-196

And the mighty Mudjekeewis

Tossed upon the wind his tresses,

Bowed his hoary head in anguish,

With a silent nod assented.

  Then up started Hiawatha,

And with threatening look and gesture

Laid his hand upon the black rock,

On the fatal Wawbeek laid it,

With his mittens, Minjekahwun,

Rent the jutting crag asunder,

Smote and crushed it into fragments,

Hurled them madly at his father,

The remorseful Mudjekeewis,

For his heart was hot within him, 

Like a living coal his heart was.

  But the ruler of the West-Wind

Blew the fragments backward from him,

With the breathing of his nostrils,

With the tempest of his anger,

Blew them back at his assailant;

Seized the bulrush, the Apukwa,

Dragged it with its roots and fibres

From the margin of the meadow,

From its ooze the giant bulrush;

Long and loud laughed Hiawatha!

In this section of the poem, the poet represents a dramatic climax in the confrontation between Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis. The section opens with Mudjekeewis’s silent admission to Hiawatha’s accusation of killing Wenonah. 

This act of tossing his tresses and bowing his head indicates his remorse, regret, and acceptance of responsibility.

Hiawatha’s anger manifests immediately. He lays his hand upon the black rock and rends it asunder. His act of hurling the fragments at his father is symbolic of his intense emotions. Mudjekeewis’s response showcases his power as the ruler of the West Wind.

The segment concludes with Hiawatha’s loud and long laughter. This could be interpreted in various ways: as a sign of victory, defiance, or perhaps an acknowledgment of the futility of his anger against his invulnerable father.

Lines 197-235

  Then began the deadly conflict,

Hand to hand among the mountains;

From his eyry screamed the eagle,

The Keneu, the great war-eagle,

Sat upon the crags around them,

Wheeling flapped his wings above them.

  Like a tall tree in the tempest

Bent and lashed the giant bulrush;

And in masses huge and heavy

Crashing fell the fatal Wawbeek;

Till the earth shook with the tumult

And confusion of the battle,

And the air was full of shoutings,

And the thunder of the mountains,

Starting, answered, “Baim-wawa!”

  Back retreated Mudjekeewis,

Rushing westward o’er the mountains,

Stumbling westward down the mountains,

Three whole days retreated fighting,

Still pursued by Hiawatha

To the doorways of the West-Wind,

To the portals of the Sunset,

To the earth’s remotest border,

Where into the empty spaces

Sinks the sun, as a flamingo

Drops into her nest at nightfall,

In the melancholy marshes.

  “Hold!” at length cried Mudjekeewis,

“Hold, my son, my Hiawatha!

In this next section, the poet continues the dramatic confrontation between Hiawatha and his father. This part of the poem portrays the escalation of the battle, moving from mere words to a full-fledged physical duel. The description of the fight as “deadly” sets the tone for a confrontation that’s both dangerous and urgent.

The description of nature’s reaction to the battle, such as the bending of the giant bulrush, the crashing of the fatal Wawbeek, and the thundering mountains, connects the fight to elemental forces, something that’s seen very commonly throughout the epic poem. 

The pursuit lasts three days. It demonstrates Hiawatha’s determination and unwavering intent to avenge his mother. The chase covers vast geographical spaces, reaching “the earth’s remotest border.” The excerpt concludes with Mudjekeewis’s call to stop the fight.

Lines 236-273

‘T is impossible to kill me,

For you cannot kill the immortal.

I have put you to this trial,

But to know and prove your courage;

Now receive the prize of valor!

  “Go back to your home and people,

Live among them, toil among them,

Cleanse the earth from all that harms it,

Clear the fishing-grounds and rivers,

Slay all monsters and magicians,

All the Wendigoes, the giants,

All the serpents, the Kenabeeks,

As I slew the Mishe-Mokwa,

Slew the Great Bear of the mountains.

  “And at last when Death draws near you,

When the awful eyes of Pauguk

Glare upon you in the darkness,

I will share my kingdom with you,

Ruler shall you be thenceforward

Of the Northwest-Wind, Keewaydin,

Of the home-wind, the Keewaydin.”

  Thus was fought that famous battle

In the dreadful days of Shah-shah,

In the days long since departed,

In the kingdom of the West-Wind.

Still the hunter sees its traces

Scattered far o’er hill and valley;

Sees the giant bulrush growing 

By the ponds and water-courses,

Sees the masses of the Wawbeek

Lying still in every valley.

  Homeward now went Hiawatha;

Pleasant was the landscape round him,

Pleasant was the air above him,

For the bitterness of anger

Had departed wholly from him,

From his brain the thought of vengeance,

From his heart the burning fever.

As this section is starting to come to a close, Hiawatha’s father reveals his immortality and frames the entire battle as a test of Hiawatha’s courage. Mudjekeewis’s instructions to Hiawatha are specific and directive in the next lines. He tells him to cleanse the earth, slay monsters, and restore balance to nature.

The mention of Death personified as Pauguk and the sharing of the kingdom with Hiawatha connect the personal struggle to the eternal. The giant bulrush and the masses of Wawbeek are reminders of the battle and stand as lasting monuments to the conflict. The final lines describe Hiawatha’s return home, where the landscape is pleasant, and anger has left him.

Lines 274-328

  Only once his pace he slackened,

Only once he paused or halted,

Paused to purchase heads of arrows

Of the ancient Arrow-maker,

In the land of the Dacotahs,

Where the Falls of Minnehaha

Flash and gleam among the oak-trees,

Laugh and leap into the valley.

  There the ancient Arrow-maker

Made his arrow-heads of sandstone,

Arrow-heads of chalcedony,

Arrow-heads of flint and jasper,

Smoothed and sharpened at the edges,

Hard and polished, keen and costly.

  With him dwelt his dark-eyed daughter,

Wayward as the Minnehaha,

With her moods of shade and sunshine,

Eyes that smiled and frowned alternate,

Feet as rapid as the river,

Tresses flowing like the water,

And as musical a laughter;

And he named her from the river,

From the water-fall he named her,

Minnehaha, Laughing Water.

In the next lines, the poet introduces a new scene and characters. Hiawatha’s journey takes him to Dacotahs.  An old craftsman is introduced who makes arrowheads from various types of stone. The poem also introduces the Arrow-maker’s daughter, named Minnehaha, or “Laughing Water.” The poet paints a picture of a lively, spirited young woman deeply connected to her natural surroundings.

Lines 329-353

  Was it then for heads of arrows,

Arrow-heads of chalcedony,

Arrow-heads of flint and jasper,

That my Hiawatha halted

In the land of the Dacotahs?

  Was it not to see the maiden,

See the face of Laughing Water

Peeping from behind the curtain,

Hear the rustling of her garments

From behind the waving curtain,

As one sees the Minnehaha

Gleaming, glancing through the branches,

As one hears the Laughing Water

From behind its screen of branches?

  Who shall say what thoughts and visions

Fill the fiery brains of young men?

Who shall say what dreams of beauty

Filled the heart of Hiawatha?

All he told to old Nokomis,

When he reached the lodge at sunset,

Was the meeting with his father,

Was his fight with Mudjekeewis;

Not a word he said of arrows,

Not a word of Laughing Water. 

In these final lines, the poet suggests that Hiawatha stopped either for arrowheads or to see Laughing Water. The juxtaposition between the practical (arrowheads) and the romantic (seeing Minnehaha) adds depth to his character.

The passage concludes with Hiawatha’s silence about his encounter with Minnehaha. He doesn’t tell his grandmother about her, choosing instead only to mention his fight with his father. The focus on what Hiawatha does not say speaks volumes about his internal state and foreshadows potential future developments in the story.

This passage is a turning point in the narrative, subtly shifting from a focus on Hiawatha’s heroic deeds to his emotional life. It deepens his character and hints at a romantic subplot.


What is the main theme of this poem? 

The main theme of this poem revolves around the life, adventures, and heroism of Hiawatha, a legendary Native American leader. Themes of nature, growth, unity, spirituality, and myth are also prominent. Longfellow attempts to create a distinctly American epic by incorporating native legends and landscapes.

What kind of poem is this?

‘The Song of Hiawatha’ is an epic poem. An epic poem is a lengthy narrative work that usually centers around a hero and encompasses broad themes such as valor, love, tragedy, heroism, and the supernatural.

What is ‘The Song of Hiawatha’ about?  

The poem tells the story of Hiawatha, a legendary figure, and his life among the Native American people. It covers his childhood, adventures, heroic deeds, relationships, and spiritual quests.

What is Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s style

Longfellow’s style is characterized by his accessibility, romanticism, and lyricism. He often uses formal and rhythmic verse, employing meter and rhyme to create melodious effects.

Similar Poetry 

Readers who enjoyed this poem should also consider reading some other Henry Wadsworth Longfellow poems. For example: 

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The Song of Hiawatha: Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis

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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Longfellow's works, including 'The Song of Hiawatha,' often exhibit a fascination with the past and a keen interest in diverse cultures. His poetry is characterized by a strong sense of rhythm, romance, and idealism. In the case of 'The Song of Hiawatha,' Longfellow's approach lends an air of myth and legend to the tale, enhancing its timeless appeal.
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19th Century

This poem is firmly situated within the context of 19th-century poetry, a time marked by a strong focus on Romanticism, nationalism, and a fascination with the exotic. Longfellow's decision to delve into Native American legends represents a broader trend during this period where poets sought to explore themes and narratives outside their immediate experience.
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This is an epic poem that's widely considered to be an important work within American literature. It reflects both the aspiration to create a uniquely American epic and the challenges of cultural representation. It remains an important part of the American literary landscape, both for its artistic achievements and its engagement with critical cultural issues.
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Coming of Age

Hiawatha's journey from a young warrior to a wise leader is a central theme in the poem. His various trials, tribulations, and growth are depicted in a manner that showcases the universal journey from youth to maturity. The coming-of-age theme offers a path for readers to connect with Hiawatha's personal development.
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The physical and spiritual journey of Hiawatha is at the heart of this poem. His adventures, battles, and encounters all form stepping stones in his path to wisdom and leadership. This journey theme adds depth to the character and represents a broader human quest for understanding and fulfillment.
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Nature plays a prominent role in 'The Song of Hiawatha,' not just as a backdrop but also as a living entity intertwined with the characters' lives. The landscape, animals, and weather all have agency in the poem. This focus on nature emphasizes a profound connection between the characters and the world around them, reflecting Native American beliefs and spirituality.
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Anger is a palpable emotion in the poem, especially during Hiawatha's battle with his father. It serves as a driving force in the narrative and symbolizes the raw human emotion that exists even in legendary figures. This portrayal of anger adds a layer of complexity to the characters and creates tension within the story.
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Hiawatha's bravery is a recurring motif, reflected in his actions and decisions throughout the poem. His courage not only defines his character but also serves as an inspiration to others within his community. The theme of bravery elevates the story into a timeless tale of heroism.
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Facing and overcoming challenges is a recurring theme in the poem. Whether it's Hiawatha's battles with nature, mythical creatures, or even his own father, these struggles signify the universal human experience of confronting and overcoming hardships. Adversity in 'The Song of Hiawatha' serves as a metaphor for personal growth and the quest for understanding, wisdom, and inner strength.
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Longfellow's poem dives deep into Native American culture, embracing the legends, beliefs, and way of life of the indigenous peoples. By focusing on specific cultural elements, the poem allows readers to explore a worldview different from their own.
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Fathers and Sons

The relationship between fathers and sons is central to this work, especially seen in the relationship between Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis. This theme explores familial ties, respect, betrayal, reconciliation, and personal growth. The bond and conflict between father and son serve as a microcosm for greater social and universal relationships.
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This poem is filled with journeys, both literal and metaphorical. Hiawatha's travels through landscapes are more than physical movement; they symbolize his spiritual and emotional journeys. These travels are part of his learning, growth, and fulfillment of his destiny. They represent a larger motif in literature where travel often symbolizes self-discovery and transformation.
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As a narrative poem, 'The Song of Hiawatha' tells a coherent story with a clear beginning, middle, and end. Longfellow's use of narrative poetry allows him to delve deeply into Hiawatha's character and the world he inhabits, offering readers an engaging and comprehensive tale.
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This poem is an example of epic poetry, characterized by its grand scope, heroic protagonist, and incorporation of myth and legend. Its epic quality helps to establish a sense of grandeur and timelessness, placing Hiawatha within the pantheon of great mythical heroes.
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Emma Baldwin Poetry Expert
Emma graduated from East Carolina University with a BA in English, minor in Creative Writing, BFA in Fine Art, and BA in Art Histories. Literature is one of her greatest passions which she pursues through analyzing poetry on Poem Analysis.

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