Here is an analysis of the poem Half-Caste by John Agard. Agard is a versatile writer known for his poems, short stories, children’s literature, drama, and nonfiction. Agard was born in what is now Guyana in 1949; he is of Afro-Guyanese descent, and his mixed race upbringing is probably his inspiration for writing this poem. Agard started his writing career as a journalist in Guyana. He moved to England in the late 1970s and became a lecturer of Caribbean culture. He has won various awards for his children’s books and poetry throughout his career, and in 1993, he became the Poet in Residence at the BBC in London. Agard continues to write and publish his works today.
Summary of Half-Caste
Half-caste is a derogatory term for a person who is of mixed race. The speaker begins the poem by excusing himself for being half-caste, though it is evident fairly early on that this apology is chock-full of sarcasm. The majority of the poem is filled with the speaker responding to being called half-caste He provides countless examples of the positive sides to being half-caste, asking himself if it being “half-caste” is like Picasso mixing his colors or the dreary English weather that is filled with cloudy skies. The speaker tells the reader that he will soon tell the “other half” of his story, signifying that his mixed race by no means defines who he is as a person—there is so much more.
Half-Caste, which can be read in full here, is composed of four stanzas of varying length, although there does seem to be some symmetry with these stanzas, as the first and last stanza contain only three lines, and the second and third stanzas are both fairly long.
It is important here to touch on Agard’s diction. The word “caste” is associated with the word “purity”; therefore, it is easy to assume that “half-caste” is a derogatory term for someone who is in some way impure, and in this case, that means they are not of one single race. While this term was once accepted, it certainly is insulting and today would be considered to be racist and fueled with ignorance and prejudice.
Agard also employs sarcasm in his first stanza, seemingly apologizing for being of mixed race. It is evident in the stanzas following the first that he is really not apologizing at all. In fact, he is lauding the fact that he is “half-caste.”
After the first stanza, Agard writes the rest of his poem using a Caribbean-English dialect, spelling words out phonetically instead of using proper spelling.
Agard also uses very little punctuation throughout the entire poem, lending a sense of urgency to the speaker’s response. He is obviously very passionate about this topic, and he feels the need to rush in order to fully defend himself as a half-caste.
The second and third stanzas are filled with metaphors: Agard compares being half-caste to black and white piano keys making a symphony and Picasso mixing reds and greens to create his masterpieces. He demands to know what the person asking him means when he says “half-caste.” Agard writes:
Agard’s blatant disregard for punctuation and capitalization is curious here, particularly because he does separate each example he gives with not a question mark, but rather a slash, creating an interesting division between each scenario he gives. Again, these slashes add to the confrontational, angry tone of the poem. The speaker is so quick to offer his argument that he has no time for any real pauses.
Agard also utilizes repetition throughout his passages, constantly asking the person to whom he’s speaking to “explain yuself/what yu mean/when yu say half-caste…” before giving his examples of what the term “half-caste” could possibly mean.
Agard’s second example is far longer than his explanation as to why Picasso’s art may be deemed half-caste. Agard compares the English weather to being half-caste, saying the mix of sun and clouds in the sky is always present in England. His anger really shows in this example, using the word spiteful when discussing how the clouds sometimes seem to not want the sun to be visible. The last line, “ah rass,” is especially angry. This phrase is a Creole term that translates to “my ass,” something someone says when they are angrily dismissing another person’s argument.
Agard uses an allusion to further his point in his third example. The speaker asks the person to whom he’s speaking if Tchaikovsky, a famous Russian composer, created half-caste symphonies because he mixed the black and white keys of the piano as he wrote his masterpieces.
In the third stanza, the examples of half-caste cease, and the tone comes increasingly angry and accusatory. The speaker takes an inward glance at himself, telling the reader that because he’s only “half,” he can only listen with half his ear, offer half a hand when someone needs help, and dream with his eyes only half closed. It is difficult to separate this stanza by lines since it is several ideas strung together. Agard writes:
In the final six lines of the poem, Agard says he is only half a human being who casts only half a shadow, but the other person in the poem can come back tomorrow with his whole self—his eyes, ears, and minds. This poem is brimming with sarcasm; one can almost imagine the speaker spitting these words vehemently at the person who dares to assume someone of mixed race is in some way lesser.
The fourth stanza is a continuation of the third, with Agard telling the person to whom he is addressing that if were to come back tomorrow, the speaker will tell him the other half of his story. Agard writes, “an I will tell yu/de other half/of my story.” These words are quite powerful: Agard is telling his reader that his race is not his full story—there is so much more to him than what one sees at first glance.
Historical Significance of Half-Caste
This poem was included in Agard’s 2005 collection of poems called Half-Caste. The anthology dealt with issues those of mixed race were facing in the United Kingdom.