Louis Simpson

American Poetry by Louis Simpson

‘American Poetry’ appears in Louis Simpson’s award-winning collection At the End of the Open Road (1963). This piece is about the nature and range of poems produced throughout America.

‘American Poetry’ introduces the fourth section of Louis Simpson’s one of the best-known collections, At the End of the Open Road. Simpson won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for this collection in 1964. This poem is specifically about a broad and vague topic, poetry. Simpson talks particularly about the wide array of poems written by a diverse range of American poets. Though he opts for a vast topic, he spares only six lines to describe the topic. However, he captures the nature of American poems within a few lines by using surprising figurative language.

American Poetry by Louis Simpson


‘American Poetry’ by Louis Simpson invests life into poetry and portrays it as a gigantic creature able to devour a great number of subjects.

This piece begins with a god-like description of poetry in America. Simpson invests the idea with the ability to digest several topics. These include rubber, coal, uranium, moons, and most importantly, other poems. In the next stanza, the speaker talks about the range of this creature. It has the ability to reach distant regions. Besides, it aptly portrays human aspirations, pains, and hopes.

You can read the full poem here.

Detailed Analysis

Stanza One

Whatever it is, it must have


Rubber, coal, uranium, moons, poems.

The first stanza of ‘American Poetry’ begins with a vague statement. Simpson’s persona could not find the right words to describe what American poetry is. He is not sure about its nature or its range. However, he somehow finds it appropriate to describe it as a living entity.

According to him, it has a stomach like human beings. Humans can digest edible things and exert the unwelcome elements out of the body. In the case of poetry, it digests everything literally. He refers to a number of items that poetry can digest very easily.

Symbolically, each term projects something else. For instance, the term “uranium” refers to the abuse of nuclear weapons and their impact on humankind. In contrast, the term “moons” signals romanticism. In simple terms, American poets wrote on a number of topics ranging from creation to destruction, industrialization to naturalization.

Stanza Two

Like the shark it contains a shoe.


Uttering cries that are almost human.

The second stanza begins with a shocking metaphor. Simpson compares American poetry to a shark. It hints at the fierce poetic language used by Americans. Their fearlessness in the face of inhumane authority is hinted at by this metaphor.

Right next, Simpson says that poetry contains a shoe. The next line clarifies why the poet has used the term. As poetry has to swim for miles or walk into arid regions, it needs some sort of protection. Here, the “shoe” symbolizes the timelessness of American poetry. It does not wear out in adverse conditions.

In the second line of this section, Simpson compares the desert to a sea metaphorically. This incongruous comparison reveals the poet’s unique ability to observe nature. He can find similarities between the distant ideas quite easily.

In the last line, the speaker describes how American poets capture humankind’s suffering, hinted at by the term “cries.” Their poems voice the cries of the downtrodden.


Simpson’s ‘American Poetry’ is written in free-verse. It means there is a regular rhyme scheme or meter. The poet does not use any internal rhyming as such. Hence, the text sounds a bit prosaic while reading. Besides, there are a total of two tercets (stanzas consisting of three lines). Simpson uses the third-person narrative technique to present his ideas. His persona describes the nature of poetry and refers to the idea as a living entity.

Literary Devices

Readers can find the use of the following literary devices in ‘American Poetry’.

  • Enjambment: Simpson uses this device in the first three lines. It forces readers to go through the lines to understand the idea. Besides, it also occurs in the last two lines.
  • Personification: In the first stanza, “poetry” is personified. According to the speaker, it has a stomach and can digest different items.
  • Asyndeton: It occurs in the line, “Rubber, coal, uranium, moons, poems.”
  • Simile: It occurs in “Like the shark it contains a shoe.” Here, “poetry” is compared to a shark.


What is the poem ‘American Poetry’ about?

Louis Simpson’s poem ‘American Poetry’ is about the nature and range of the poems written by great American poets. In this poem, he captures the wide array of topics that are displayed through their poems.

When was ‘American Poetry’ published?

The poem was first published in At the End of the Open Road in 1963. This book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1964.

What is the theme of ‘American Poetry’?

This poem taps on a number of themes that include the timelessness of poetry, range of art, realism, and humankind. The main idea of the poem revolves around the nature of American poems.

What type of poem is ‘American Poetry’?

It is a free-verse poem that does not contain a specific rhyme scheme or meter. Simpson writes this piece from the perspective of a third-person speaker. Besides, the text consists of two tercets.

Similar Poems

The following poems are similar to Louis Simpson’s poem ‘American Poetry’. Explore more Louis Simpson poems.

You can also read about the best 20th-century American poets.

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Sudip Das Gupta Poetry Expert
A complete expert on poetry, Sudip graduated with a first-class B.A. Honors Degree in English Literature. He has a passion for analyzing poetic works with a particular emphasis on literary devices and scansion.
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