R Rudyard Kipling

The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling

In this controversial poem, Rudyard Kipling taps into the imperialist mindset and what he, and others, saw as the “white man’s burden.”

Read in a contemporary context, it’s important to consider the motivations behind Kipling’s ‘The White Man’s Burden’ while at the same time, try to understand why this particular mindset of white superiority was put forth. Kipling presents the reader with inherently racist images of dominance, cast as “help” provided to the native peoples of the Philippines. At no point in the poem does the speaker consider whether or not these people want that help nor does he stop to validate this mindset or explore its origin.

The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling


Summary of The White Man’s Burden 

The White Man’s Burden’ by Rudyard Kipling demonstrates the imperialist mindset popular in the poet’s time.

The poem is addressed to white men, who the speaker describes as superior. The speaker tells them that it’s their responsibility to travel to the Philippines (although the location is never stated explicitly). There, they can take control away from the “devil-like”, irresponsible, and flighty natives. This will, the speaker states, be helpful to them. The white men will be doing them a favor. The following stanzas outline the hard work that has to be done, the lack of thanks the men will get for controlling this other group, and the pride they should feel when the job is complete. 

Discover more Rudyard Kipling poems here.


Structure of The White Man’s Burden 

The White Man’s Burden’ by Rudyard Kipling is a seven stanza poem that is separated into sets of eight lines. The rhyme scheme and metrical pattern are extremely regulated. This feature makes the poem feel very tensely structured and creates the feeling that these lines should be read out loud, perhaps chanted. The lines rhyme in the straightforward pattern of ABCBDEFE while the meter is a little more complex. 

In regards to the meter, Kipling structures the odd-numbered lines (1,3,5 and so on) with two iambs and one amphibrach. An iamb is a pair of two syllables the first of which is unstressed and the second stressed. The much less familiar amphibrach is a three-syllable grouping in which the first and last syllables are unstressed and the middle is stressed.

The even-numbered lines (2,4,6, and so on) are less complex. They are written in iambic trimeter. This means that there are three sets of two syllables with the first syllable unstressed and the second stressed in each pair. 


Poetic Techniques in The White Man’s Burden 

Kipling makes use of several poetic techniques in ‘The White Man’s Burden’. These include enjambment, alliteration, and allusion. The first, enjambment, occurs when a line is cut off before its natural stopping point. Enjambment forces a reader down to the next line, and the next, quickly. One has to move forward in order to comfortably resolve a phrase or sentence. For example, the transition between lines three and four of the first stanza and five and six of the first stanza. 

Alliteration occurs when words are used in succession, or at least appear close together, and begin with the same letter. For example, “best ye breed” in the first stanza and “silent, sullen” in the sixth. 

An allusion is an expression that’s meant to call something specific to mind without directly stating it. Within this poem, Kipling alludes to the Philippine-American War, colonialism, and a racially superior attitude that ruled foreign policy. 


Analysis of The White Man’s Burden

Stanza One 

Lines 1-4 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

Send forth the best ye breed—

Go bind your sons to exile

To serve your captives’ need;

In the first stanza of ‘The White man’s Burden,’ the speaker begins by demanding that the reader, or an intended listener, “Take up the White Man’s Burden”. It’s clear there is some job or responsibility that the speaker is trying to engage someone else in. He tells the listener to “Send for the best yet breed,” or your best sons, for the job. So far, all that’s clear is that there is a burden, a heavy task of some kind, that is related to white men, that needs to be completed. The following lines and stanzas describe what exactly that means. 

It is important to note in this racially insensitive poem, that the “best” is very clearly aimed at white men. There are no other races, the speaker suggests, that would fall into this category. The men should be sent away to do service for the “captives”. The “captives” Kipling is referring to are the native Filipinos who were, at the time, lately freed by America, from Spanish rule. 


Lines 5-8 

To wait in heavy harness

On fluttered folk and wild—

Your new-caught, sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child.

In the next four lines of ‘The White Man’s Burden’, the speaker explains more about what the “best” bred white men are going to be doing. They will do hard work, as explained through the metaphor comparing them to workhorses in a “heavy harness”. The speaker describes the native people as “fluttered folk” and “wild”. They appear to him to be out of control, without direction, like butterflies or birds. They are “new-caught” and because of that, “sullen”. They’re gloomy and unhelpful in the speaker’s mind.

From these lines, it’s clear why the speaker thought the job the white men have to do is so difficult. They aren’t going to be getting any assistance from this group of newly conquered people. 


Stanza Two 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

In patience to abide,

To veil the threat of terror

And check the show of pride;

By open speech and simple,

An hundred times made plain.

To seek another’s profit,

And work another’s gain.

In the second stanza of ‘The White Man’s Burden’, the poet repeats the refrain, “Take up the White Man’s burden—“ and adds details about how the men should act. They should, in contrast to the minority the speaker is discriminating against, act patient. Others are less than the white men are, and they should prove their superiority. Pride should also be kept in check so that they might do their job and control this other group to their best ability. 

Kipling’s speaker’s message does not get any less discriminatory in the next lines. He tells the listener that they should speak slowly and simply because these folks will not be able to understand anything complicated. The speaker tries to emphasize the point that this effort they’re going to is for “another’s gain” but it’s hard to believe that’s the case considering the way he’s going about it. 


Stanza Three 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

The savage wars of peace—

Fill full the mouth of Famine

And bid the sickness cease;

And when your goal is nearest

The end for others sought,

Watch Sloth and heathen Folly

Bring all your hopes to nought.

After the refrain, the speaker gets more specific about what the white men are going to do to help the native people. First, after all the violence the people suffered at their hands, they need to bring peace. It might take “savage wars” in order to complete this goal, but, the speaker concludes, so be it. This paradox is a great representation of the juxtaposed ideas and attitude at the center of ‘The White Man’s Burden’.

They will “Fill full the mouth of Famine”. Personified famine should be destroyed in the lands. They should also “bid the sickness cease”. This suggests that they can just ask for diseases to go away. In the next four lines, the speaker adds that when all this has been done it will likely fall apart again. This is due to the perceived “Sloth” and “Folly” of the native people. 


Stanza Four 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

No tawdry rule of kings,

But toil of serf and sweeper—

The tale of common things.

The ports ye shall not enter,

The roads ye shall not tread,

Go make them with your living,

And mark them with your dead!

The men who travel to this land to, in name alone, help the native peoples of the Philippines are not going to go there in order to become kings. The point of this endeavor is not glory or money. It is a story of “serf and sweeper,” or hard workers and hard work. 

The white men shall not, the speaker says, take any pleasure from this work. They won’t get to go into town or walk on the roads. They just have to work and some might even end up dead. 


Stanza Five 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

And reap his old reward:

The blame of those ye better,

The hate of those ye guard—

The cry of hosts ye humour

(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:—

“Why brought ye us from bondage,

Our loved Egyptian night?”

With another iteration of the refrain, the speaker adds to the poem that the only award the white man is going to get from this hard work is “blame” and “hate”. Those the speaker sees as being inferior are going to hate the “betters,” the white men. 

In the next four lines of ‘The White Man’s Burden,’ the speaker says that those the white men help (conquer) are going to be very unhappy. They’ll cry out in distress as if they are the freed Jews from Egypt, mourning their lost slavery. 


Stanza Six 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

Ye dare not stoop to less—

Nor call too loud on Freedom

To cloak your weariness;

By all ye cry or whisper,

By all ye leave or do,

The silent, sullen peoples

Shall weigh your Gods and you.

The men selected for the task should understand everything the speaker said and confront this problem head-on. They shouldn’t “stoop to less” or complain. They shouldn’t cry out “Freedom” when really they’re just being lazy. There is no easy escape from this work. They’re going to have to work hard, deal with the judgments of the native peoples, and contend with their different religious beliefs. 


Stanza Seven 

Take up the White Man’s burden—

Have done with childish days—

The lightly profferred laurel,

The easy, ungrudged praise.

Comes now, to search your manhood

Through all the thankless years,

Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,

The judgment of your peers!

In the final stanza, the speaker tries for one last time to encourage the white men to do what needs to be done. They should stop acting youthful and childish and instead take some responsibility as men. 

After their days of hard work, the men will gain wisdom and the respect of their peers. This should something that anyone to whom the poem is addressed will be attracted to.

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Emma Baldwin Poetry Expert
Emma graduated from East Carolina University with a BA in English, minor in Creative Writing, BFA in Fine Art, and BA in Art Histories. Literature is one of her greatest passions which she pursues through analyzing poetry on Poem Analysis.
  • Ship'o'fules says:

    I think the ‘judgment of your peers’ is absolutely unambiguously negative. Look at it again, as a sentence

    Comes now, to search your manhood
    Through all the thankless years,
    Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,
    The judgment of your peers!

    Subject – “The judgment of your peers”
    Verb – “Comes”
    Object – “now”

    Everything else is adjectival to the subject. If you say that the judgment is going to “search your manhood through all the thankless years” does it sound like a pleasant thing? Does judgement “cold edged with dear-bought wisdom” not sound like a knife that will be slid through your proverbial ribs?

    The poem is clear that the task it urges the reader to will make their life worse, they will garner praise neither from the colonised nor their peers. Where the poem is conspicuously silent is on motive – /why you should do all this/ – by deliberately leaving it axiomatic I would suggest it is meant to invite the very question. It simultaneously flatters the Victorian imperialists reading it and provokes soul searching in the deeper-thinking. This is why people still discuss it.

    • Lee-James Bovey says:

      I agree that the judgement of your peers is almost certainly negative. You have done a great job of breaking down the rationale for your argument too.

  • Kipling is so much smarter than Ms. Baldwin, who lazily regurgitates the false, and yes, “woke”, spin on the poem.
    It is not an encouragement to imperialism or exploitation. It is clearly an ironic, world weary but wise, description of what the Americans had just got themselves into. The words offer only negative consequences for the Americans’ future, while acknowledging their feelings, like the British before them, of the moral need to follow through with it.
    The closest modern equivalent? Maybe Colin Powell in a White House meeting, about 2004, hearing Cheney and Rumsfeld advocate leaving Iraq, and dryly telling them “you broke it, now you have to fix it”.
    In the late 19th century the United States only wanted Manila Bay in the Pacific. When Spain suddenly and unexpectedly let their colonial empire collapse, the US was left with the choice of letting the Philippines fall into squalor (their economy had been dependent on trade with the Spanish empire) and be easy prey for every other colony-minded power of the time (Japan, the Dutch, the French), or, heavy Kipling-esque irony here, take up the White Man’s burden.

    • Lee-James Bovey says:

      I think the world would be a far better place if everything that could be considered racist was said ironically. I don’t think it is lazy to assume that Kipling held these views. In fact, it’s a debate that rages to this day. Being as the poem was written to celebrate Queen Victoria’s jubilee the chances of it being anything other than pro-empire rhetoric are slim. Then there is all the backlash the poem faced at the time, being parodied by people of colour. If Emma has got it wrong then so have a lot of people through history.

  • “After their days of hard work, the men will gain wisdom and the respect of their peers. This should be something that anyone to whom the poem is addressed to will be attracted to”

    Well the Poem is addressed to everyone, isn’t it? Nothing in this part of the poem seems positive, 1. “Not days of hard work” but “thankless years”, “through which” you become “cold-edged” and acquired wisdom at great expanse “dearly bought”, in the end for giving up your childhood.. judgement is not respect, and for most probably not associated positively.

    Rest is being strongly biased by my understanding, in case any White Man (gender-free) feels compelled to judge me. Short and frank, you experienced a lot of shit for following a delusion and won’t get any recognition plus might have real problems as a consequence. There is a reason most soldiers don’t talk about their experiences and it’s not only PTSD… others will not understand, a lot could try but why if the delusion of being a “White Man” feels more comfortable, btw modern term for White Man is “being PC”.

    Think free and you are as free as you can be.

    • Lee-James Bovey says:

      I agree with a lot of what you say. The work of Kipling is marred by his views. Some would argue that they were of his time. I think that argument only really holds water in a society where racism is no longer an issue.

  • Without being aware of it’s historical context or the author’s persona, I would not necessarily, interpret along a racial narrative, but more general as description of a “White Man”‘s burden and the inherent flaw of being a “White Man”. “White man” as someone perceiving himself as better than others (independent of skin color) and using this delusional thinking to justify all kinds of atrocities, nothing knew this is common practice in (at least) all “high cultures”. The more specific parts do have a racial component but from my view showing the flawed logic, even today so many seem to believe, that there are fundamental differences between people or that the values of traits are defined by their individual qualities, but we all know it is the situation defining it’s relative value (relative to the one evaluating). There is no objectively good or bad.
    Now I pick only the last of the stanza’s to show my perspective cause I’m lazy ;):

    “Take up the White Man’s burden—”

    (This is more a warning like: If you take up the White Man’s burden…
    capital W of “White” makes it a noun not an adjective, loosing it’s function to describe one quality of something having many, instead it describes itself, a noun/name, and calling it a burden makes a racial context unlikely, I’m from Germany and can’t remember the Nazi regime calling it their burden to eradict the Jews, it was their duty to get rid of the “burden”).

    “Have done with childish days—”

    (Another warning: Your care free time is over, neg connotation of childish is another critic on flawed ideas/concepts, indicated by the next two lines and the pause after days, maybe a pause to think of what it really means)

    “The lightly profferred laurel,

    The easy, ungrudged praise.”

    (both lines reffering to the sarcasm of childish being a negatively attributed adjective and irony looking at our society’s idea on how to treat children.)

    “Comes now, to search your manhood”
    (referrering to soldiers coming home searching to become
    society’s idea of a grown up (“your manhood” not theirs)

    “Through all the thankless years,”

    (going through the usually, let’s say, mediocre experience of war, for seemingly nothing than the gains of few.. if you expect the invaded peoples being thankful for being invaded, maybe think again..)

    “Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,”

    (being emotionally cold-edged an effect of coping with the experience of war, way to protect oneself from being overwhelmed, gotten expensivly gained wisdom)

    “The judgment of your peers!”

    (that’s the “White Man’s burden” judgement of his peers, or the price for judging others. Als another argument against a racial intent, which racist would describe the one’s he is discriminating as “his peers”)

    My interpretation is of course highly subjective (like it should be at first imo, mistakes are easier erased than preformed expectations) only infos I got on author and poem are from this site, though only read the poem and this author’s comments on the stanzas.

    And please don’t think I am trying to diminish racism, racism is real as is white privilege, believe me I know (I’m a normal, white male with a pretty face, know how to dress and I rarely get treated badly or unfriendly by strangers or get away with a lot, eg looking for an appartement always easy, it gos on and on, it is nice as long as you aren’t aware of it, then it gets funny (or sad depending on your coping strategy) but I admit it is useful at times, all priviliges are, white, male & handsome in my case, btw I also have a lot of attributes creating disadvantages in navigating life but none seen easily from the outside, though. “The Emperor’s Clothes” and “Sysiphos” all the time ^^.
    Why not see that we are part of one thing, one thing has no parts..
    Either no one matters or all, to nature (or god) nothing does matter
    in terms of value or judgement. We are all equal to the One.
    So be yourself, open your eyes or close them, just be a free mind..



    • Lee-James Bovey says:

      Thank you for your recent feedback on this post. It is really interesting and informative to hear your views. Or see them rather!

  • Alan B. Nelson says:

    A typical 2021 review of a poem written over 100 years ago with attempts to compare it to todays woke culture.

    • Lee-James Bovey says:

      I think it’s a useful activity to reflect on classic poetry with a modern lens. “woke culture” is certainly superior to a world where inequality was rife. I am proud of how progressive society has come – although there is still work to do.

      • Woke culture is leading to a world of inequity.

        • Lee-James Bovey says:

          Maybe, maybe not. I sometimes feel those screaming, “my voice has been silenced” are the same voices that have been silencing others for years or even decades.

  • >

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