Summer Solstice, New York City

Sharon Olds

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ by Sharon Olds is a deeply moving poem that conveys the tender importance of remembering our capacity for human compassion.

Sharon Olds

Nationality: American

Sharon Olds is a contemporary American poet born in 1942.

She has won numerous literary awards, including the Pulitzer Prize.

Key Poem Information

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Central Message: A reminder of the essentialism of human connection

Speaker: An observer

Emotions Evoked: Depression, Empathy, Worry

Poetic Form: Free Verse

Time Period: 20th Century

Sharon Olds' poem paints a heartfelt scene that revolves around one man's desperation and transforms it into a poignant assertion of empathy.

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ is a profoundly moving poem by Sharon Olds that places under the microscope a moment of crisis. The poet uses a variety of imagery and figurative language to illustrate with painstaking emotion all the chaos and empathy that unravels when a man climbs to the top of the building with the intention of jumping off it. What follows is a breathless and poignant poem that captures a moment of human connection found amidst a bustling metropolitan landscape.


‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ by Sharon Olds illustrates a scene of compassion between strangers as they try to prevent a man’s suicide.

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ offers a glimpse at a familiar trope in both life and art: a man climbs to the top of a building, and a city mobilizes to talk him down. The speaker narrates the incident as a fellow observer, describing the way the arriving police officers prepare to approach “the man who wanted to die.” As one of the cops starts talking to him, a bustle of activity far below starts to unfold as the police unfold a net to try and break the man’s fall should he jump. A crowd has also gathered in the street staring and is staring up in silence at the man.

As the tension builds, the man suddenly steps down and walks toward the officers — the speaker thinking momentarily that the cops are going to “beat him up” like a mother driven to anger because of fear — but then they all embrace. The poem ends with a solemn and tender moment as the speaker observes the men from a distance, watching the “red, glowing ends” of their cigarettes burn as they share a smoke.

Structure and Form

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ is a free verse poem comprised of a single stanza. It is a narrative poem that is structured around four long sentences that describe its events in real-time.

Literary Devices

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ uses a large variety of imagery and figurative language. There is visual imagery: “he went up the iron stairs through the roof of the building” (2); “the cops came in their suits blue-grey as the sky on a cloudy evening” (7). Tactile imagery: “the soft, tarry surface” (3). Kinesthetic and visual imagery: “Put one leg over the complex green tin cornice” (4); “The tallest cop approached him directly, / softly, slowly, talking to him, talking, talking” (16-17).

There are also examples of metaphor: “the huge machinery of the earth” (6); “black shell around his own life” (9). Personification: “the lip of the next world” (18). As well as a lot of similes: “rope like the sign of his bounden duty” (12), “came up out of a hole in the top of the neighboring building / like the gold hole they say is in the top of the head,” (13-14) “stretched as the sheet is prepared to receive a birth.” (22) “as a mother whose child has been / lost will scream at the child when its found,” (31-32) “red, glowing ends burned like the / tiny campfires we lit at night / back at the beginning of the world” (38-40)

Detailed Analysis

Lines 1-5

By the end of the longest day of the year he could not stand it,
he went up the iron stairs through the roof of the building
and over the soft, tarry surface
to the edge, put one leg over the complex green tin cornice
and said if they came a step closer that was it.

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ begins with the speaker describing the unknown man’s decision to ascend the building to jump off of it. Olds is deliberately ambiguous about the reason he wants to die and only offers a vague but still impactful explanation: “he could not stand it” (1). The implication is that this man has reached the final straw of some existential crisis and is now wearied by life.

The paced visual imagery offered in these lines focuses on the different surfaces the man must traverse to reach the top. He walks up the “iron stairs” (2) across the “soft, tarry surface” (3) of the roof and swings “one leg over the complex green tin cornice” (4) of the building’s edge. The laborious detail of such mundane observations reflects the man’s hyperfocus on everything except his coming suicide attempt, as well as building a certain weighted tension in his journey toward the edge.

Lines 6-15

Then the huge machinery of the earth began to work for his life,
the cops came in their suits blue-grey as the sky on a cloudy evening,
and one put on a bullet-proof vest, a
black shell around his own life,

The next sentence found in ‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ describes the momentous effort of first responders who arrive to talk the man down. Olds employs a variety of striking kinesthetic imagery and figurative language that emphasizes the urgency of the city’s reaction, comparing the process to some “huge machinery of the earth [beginning] to work for his life” (6).

Here the speaker hones in on the two police officers prepping for their interaction with the man. The mention of the “bullet-proof vest” (8) and “life of his children’s father” (10) touches on the poem’s theme concerning life’s fragility, as well as the invisible bonds that tie us all together.

The second cop takes a different route that leads him “out of a hole in the top of the neighboring building / like the gold hole they say is in the top of the head” (13-14). The simile possibly alludes to either the fontanelle (the “soft spot” babies are born with) or what is known as the crown chakra in yoga traditions (depicted as a gold ring). Adding respectively to the poem’s emphasis on our shared vulnerabilities as humans and the solemnity of the attempt to save the man’s life.

Lines 16-22

The tallest cop approached him directly,
softly, slowly, talking to him, talking, talking,
while the man’s leg hung over the lip of the next world
and the crowd gathered in the street, silent, and the

The speaker of ‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ then starts to describe the way the police officers attempt to lure the man away from the ledge. One of them approaches him “directly, / softly, slowly, talking to him, talking, talking” (16-17), the diction underscoring his patience and care. Olds uses another striking piece of figurative language in the preceding line to emphasize the man’s precarious position as he listens to the cop, describing his leg as hanging “over the lip of the next world” (18).

Below, the speaker reveals a crowd has gathered but is “silent” (19) as a net is set up to catch the man if he jumps. Olds alludes again to infancy and the beginning of life by drawing a comparison between the safety net and the “sheet [that] is prepared to receive a birth” (22). The metaphor accentuates the collective compassion being offered up to the man, creating a parallel between the nurturing moment of childbirth with a similar one now occurring at the potential ending of his life.

Lines 23-40

Then they all came a little closer
where he squatted next to his death, his shirt
glowing its milky glow like something
growing in a dish at night in the dark in a lab and then

‘Summer Solstice, New York City’ ends with the man walking away from the edge toward the cops: “everything stopped / as his body jerked and he “stepped down from the parapet and went toward them” (27-29). It is at this moment the speaker admits to initially thinking that the officers are going to physically attack him, analogizing the violent response to that of a “mother whose child has been / lost will scream at the child when its found” (31-32). Once more reinforcing this elusive familial link between complete strangers that is driven by empathy.

But the men do not “beat him up” (31), and instead, they begin to share a smoke. Olds stresses the intimacy of the scene that unfolds atop the building, isolated as they are from the disarray and anxiety down on the streets below. The imagery of their cigarettes and their “red, glowing ends” (38) conjures up another beautiful bit of figurative language that compares their burning to the “tiny campfires we lit at night / back at the beginning of the world” (39-40). The simile reaffirms the poem’s earnest plea for empathy and human connection.


What is the theme of ‘Summer Solstice, New York City?

The poem’s theme centers on the necessity of human connection. Olds uses plenty of imagery and figurative language to reiterate this point, from the way the city brings together this galvanizing effort to stop the man’s suicide to the final scene of the men’s shared cigarettes.

Why did Sharon Olds write ‘Summer Solstice, New York City?

Olds no doubt wrote the poem to highlight her perceived sense of unity that is hidden within the hustle and bustle of urban life. One man’s desperation brings together a whole city and reveals the underlying empathy that brings together complete strangers.

What is the significance of the poem’s title?

The title obviously indicates the poem takes place in New York, but it also references the time of year with its mention of the summer solstice. The poem takes place on the “longest day of the year,” which happens during the solstice and also underscores the man’s endurance of such a lengthy day.

Why does the speaker compare the man to a thing “growing in a dish at night in the dark in a lab”?

Throughout the poem, the speaker uses a variety of images and figurative language to spotlight the man’s vulnerability. This example does just that by comparing him to something that is delicate and unprotected but still trying to thrive, a perception that alludes to his decision to step away from the ledge.

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Summer Solstice, New York City

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Sharon Olds (poems)

Sharon Olds

This poem by Sharon Olds illustrates an emotionally jarring scene that is made all the more moving by the poet's use of imagery and figurative language. It is an incredibly impactful poem that conveys the importance of human connection, while also attempting to show that such communal compassion still exists beneath the bustle of urbanity.
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20th Century

Olds is a poet renowned for the emotional depth that the scenes her poetry explored were rendered with. This poem, although tied to a specific place and time, imparts the timeless sense of her focus on that which binds people together. This results in a poem that both New Yorkers and anyone who has experienced the bittersweetness of urban life might relate to or be moved by it.
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Olds is a prominent American poet whose first collection "Satan Says" captured the raw expression that defines her poetry. This poem is much more subtle and not so personal, yet it is still characterized by the poet's undeniable ability to locate the hidden power and wonder of such intimate moments as the one explored in the poem.
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Although there is no overt celebration that takes place in the poem, there is an ecstatic relief offered when the man steps away from the ledge. The anticlimax is made all the more powerful when the man and his saviors share a quiet smoke atop the building, this small moment of communion serving as the poem's celebratory moment.
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Death is another theme found within the poem, specifically in the way it looms around the man contemplating suicide. It is his possibly impending death that moves the entire city toward attempting a rescue, highlighting the importance of his solitary life alongside all the others present. This, in turn, creates a powerful sense of empathy being advocated for in the poem.
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The poem urges the importance of human connection with its ending. The final scene settles on the men sharing a smoke in silence after the tense and emotional scene that has just unfolded. Olds even uses a powerful piece of imagery and figurative language to compare them to the campfires around which stories and lives were once wound together.
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Depression is a powerful emotion found within the poem: it fuels the man's ascension to the top of the building, but it is also conjured within the reader as well. In making the man's reasons ambiguous, the poem emphasizes that the root of such despair can be a great many things. Yet at the end of the day, it is a profoundly heartbreaking scene (however familiar) to witness someone so depressed that they consider death an escape.
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Empathy is another emotion elicited from the reader by the poem. The way the man is saved by complete strangers underscores the necessity for such compassion and that it can be transformative or life-saving. The optimism of the poem is firmly rooted in this belief in empathy as the very thing that holds societies and communities together.
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There is also a sense of worry that pervades the poem from its opening lines. Olds illustrates the man's ascent as painstakingly slow and focused, with each line adding to the weight of their intention. Until you reach the end of the poem, it is haunted by the possibility that the man will actually commit suicide.
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Since the poem takes place in New York City, the location is an important part of the poem. Olds clearly has an optimistic and humanistic view of the city itself and the people who live there. The way the poem unfolds serves as an expression of faith in both that they will come together to save even just one person caught in a spiral of despair.
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The image of the men sharing a smoke at the end of the poem is, without a doubt, one of its more impactful moments. Even the way Olds describes and compares it to campfires seems to accentuate the communal aspect of it, as well as the casual but profound courtesy of sharing something (anything) with someone who has just literally chosen life over death.
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The poem opens with a potential suicide and thankfully ends with the man choosing not to go through with it. Due to the distance, the speaker has from the man, the poem does not offer an intimate look at suicide itself or the depression that fuels it. Instead, the poem offers a positive and optimistic reaction to such a possible tragedy.
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The poem makes reference to a specific season: summer, with the purpose of using the longest day of the year to emphasize how fed up the man is. Additionally, there is the insinuation of the heat that comes with such a day and the way rising temperatures have a way of exacerbating the tension and anxiety.
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Free Verse

This poem is written in free verse and, as a result, lacks any rhyme scheme or meter. The result is a poem that moves with both tension and fluidity according to the narrative events that unfold in the poem. The poem's verse replicates regular speech patterns and cadences as if the speaker was relating a story.
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Steven Ward Poetry Expert
Steven Ward is a passionate writer, having studied for a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature and being a poetry editor for the 'West Wind' publication. He brings this experience to his poetry analysis on Poem Analysis.

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