‘The Tyger’ is not a simplistic poem as it yields many interpretations. However, its strong, resonating rhyming drives the key concept in reader’s mind efficiently. William Blake’s literary masterpiece, ‘The Tyger’ has been scrutinized from literal and metaphorical point of views as he revisits his preferred dilemmas of innocence vs. experience. As for God, his creations are just beautiful and transcend the notions of good-evil. As is the case with his earlier poems, ‘The Tyger’ gives no visible answers except offering more questions.
The poem slowly and gradually leads to asking some troubling questions. ‘The Tyger’ in essence is a poem where the poet asks the tiger about its creator and his traits. Each stanza poses certain questions with a vague subject (Tyger) in consideration. The poem largely questions the existence of god and its metaphysical attributes referring to Tyger’s multiple corporeal characteristics as purely a work of art. The poet wonders how the creator would have felt after completing his creation. Is he also the creator of the lamb?
The poem analysis has been divided into following sections:
- Poetic Form
- Poetic Structure
- Stanza analysis
- Historical Perspective
The Tyger Form
The poem ‘The Tyger’ consists of 6-quatrains entailed in rhymed couplets. The poem flows with a rhythmic synchronization with a regular meter, the hammering is relevant to blacksmith herein. It has been written in a neat, regular structure with neat proportions. The poem slowly points out to the final question therein.
The Tyger Structure
‘The Tyger’ consists of 6-stanzas with each stanza consisting of 4-lines each. The 1st and last stanzas are similar with the word ‘could’ and ‘dare’ interchanged. The poem at times is all about questions to the divine with at least 13-different questions asked in the poems entirety. The poet seems worried as to how the creator shaped up such a magnificent creature, but more so, how is the creator himself?
After publishing Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience was published in 1794. The aim of the poet was to demonstrate the contrarian nature of the soul and human thought. The poem ‘The Tyger’ was published in his collection of poems known as Songs of Experience. It became an instant literary classic amongst all-time classic poems of modern era.
‘Songs of Experience’ was written in opposition to ‘Songs of Innocence’, key components in Blake’s thought process, being a radical thinker of his time. ‘The Tyger’ was the pinnacle of heresy for William Blake, pitching humans bearing the onus for their actions.
The Tyger Analysis
Tyger, Tyger, burning bright
In the forests of the night
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry
The initial verse refers to tyger, imploring about its beauty and creator. As the poem leads on gradually, the poem clearly makes it a point to discuss God as an entity as opposed to the tyger. William Blake champions metaphors as the first one is ‘burning bright’, refers to the tyger’s bright yellow fur, as it roams freely in the forest night. The central question as the reader slowly realizes pertains existence of God.
Slowly, William Blake attacks the Christian God as he asks whether a divine entity is capable of creating such a mesmerizing creature with perfection definitions and extraordinaire beauty. Whether he deems God impotent of creating such a four-legged creature is left open-ended to the reader.
Fearful symmetry is a nuanced trait which has dual allusions, one for the tyger and the other referring to divine deity. As apparent, the sublime characteristic refers to an entity extremely big and powerful yet mysterious. As a result, the poet starts off with poetic allusions, entirely open-ended for the reader to perceive as he pleases. He slowly arrives at the question as how would a God be when he hath created such a scary creature walking freely in the jungle.
In what distant deep or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare seize the fire?
The poet’s fascination with Tyger ever increases as he seems mesmerized with his fiery eyes. He feels that the fire in his eyes came from a distant heavenly body such as hell/ heaven. The poet adds to the fiery image of Tyger by using the metaphor of burning from first verse. The third line throws the reader off track. William Blake is slowly coming to the point of his argument, God.
The poet resonates the point that ‘Tyger’ reflects its creator. The poet furthermore creates a more supernatural image using the words of ‘hand’, ‘wings’ and fire, relating to the divine being. These words have been reiterated from above. The term ‘daring’ is introduced which is reverberated in the latter stanza.
And what shoulder, and what art
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when they heart began to beat,
What dead hand? And what dread feet?
The poet in this stanza discusses the physical characteristics of the almighty creator, contemplating about his various physical features. The lines are lost in translation as the poet wonders in-depth about God’s physical attributes which could also be an allegory to tyger’s characteristics.
What the hammer? What’s the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? What dead grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp
This stanza questions the steps involved in creation of the all-mighty jungle creature, the tyger. An allegorical reference to blacksmith, he hypothesizes some intelligent creator developing his creation akin to a blacksmith as he cuts, hammers and forms metal after considerable toil. The stanza is steeped in rhythmic poetry, adding flair and color. As apparent, the poet is getting impatient and embarks on questioning the faith and its overalls.
When the stars threw down their spears,
And watered heaven with their tears,
Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the lamb make thee?
These are the ‘Christian’ verses of the poem. The first line clearly indicates the demotion of God’s arch-angel ‘Satan’ as a sign of rebellion against God’s will. It’s also a veiled reference to John Milton’s poem ‘Paradise Lost’. He refers to all-mighty creator looking with reverence at his finalized creation. This stanza is purely Christian by all means. The lamb can dually mean ‘the lamb of god’ or lamb from his poem ‘The Lamb’. The former is an open reference to Jesus Christ (the Lamb of God), sent by God on earth to atone sins of mankind.
Tyger Tyger, burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry
The last stanza is the repetition of the first as a chorus. Albeit, the word ‘could’ has been replaced by ‘dare’ by the poet. The poet in this section attempts to question the creator’s ability. The poet embarks on challenging the ability of his creator to creating this mighty creature.
Personal commentary of The Tyger
William Blake builds on the general perception that all living entities must reflect its creator in some mannerism. The opening verses slowly leads to the primary objective of the poem, contemplating about God in the heavens above. In essence, the tiger is a beautifully enigmatic creature, yet lethal at the same time. This also reflects the nature of God as he contemplates that a God could be just as loving and just as lethal when needed be. As a result, what kind of being can be both violent and so magnificent simultaneously? The poem explores the moral dilemma of the poet largely concerned with metaphysical entity. It becomes a symbolic allegory to God in hindsight.
As the poet contends, that such a powerfully destructive living entity can be a creation of a purely, artful God. The poet precludes the notion of tiger’s creation in any way accidental or haphazard. He feels that this tiger is allotted immense physical strength as it can wield its command over weaker animals.
The final allusion to the lamb can connote his reference to poem, ‘The Lamb’ as he compares the timid living animal to that of tiger. God created tiger as a dominant creature while the lamb is simply a weakling compared to tiger. On the whole, ‘The Tyger’ consists of unanswered questions, the poet leaves his readers pondering the will of the creator, his limitless power and awe of his creation, a three-fold subject. In conclusion, the poet ends his poem with perspectives of innocence and experience, both a subject of great interest to him.
‘Songs of Innocence’ and ‘Songs of Experience’ juxtapose opposing sides of human nature, comparing and contrasting innocence with corruption. ‘The Tyger’ is an extension of the same theme, representing two diverse perspectives of the human world. William Blake doesn’t take either side, but paints an opposing worldview for his readers. He also seems opposed to 3-fold controlling forces of religion, despotic rule and sexual repression.